The Physical and Functional Properties of Partially Defatted Coconut Testa Flour

  • J. M. N. Marikkar National Institute of Fundamental Studies
  • S. S. K. Marasinghe
  • Dr. Yalegama
  • Ms. Dilani


Coconut testa is an important byproduct of the coconut industry. In this study, particle size distribution, physical and functional properties of flour produced from partially coconut testa of four local cultivars namely san raman, gon thembili, ran thembili, TallxTall were compared with those of commercial hybrid (COM) using relevant procedures. Results showed that particle size distribution, physical and functional properties of flours of different coconut cultivars were varied significantly (p<0.05). The highest bulk density value was observed for SR (0.67 g/ml) while the lowest for TxT (0.54 g/ml) (p<0.05). Maximum swelling capacity (35.00 ml) and oil absorption capacity (142.67%) were recorded for COM while the least swelling capacity (20.67 ml) and oil absorption capacity (85.67%) were recorded for RT (p<0.05). The highest emulsion activity was found for COM (50.00%) while the least value recorded for SR (42.95) (p<0.05). The maximum emulsion stability was displayed by COM (54.86%) while the least emulsion stability was recorded for GT (27.51%) (p<0.05). The observed physical properties suggested that coconut testa flour of COM variety has certain advantages over others. It could be used for partial replacement with wheat flour for value addition leading to non-cereal based products.


Abioye, V. F., Ade-Omowaye, B., Babarinde, G. O., & Adesigbin, M. K. (2011). Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory properties of soy-plantain flour. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 176-180.

Adebowale O. J. & Maliki K. (2011). Effect of fermentation period on the chemical composition and functional properties of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed flour. International Food Research Journal, 18(4), 1329–1333.

Adekola K. A., Salleh A. B., Zaidan U. H., Azlan A., Chiavaro E., Paciulli M., & Marikkar J. M. N. (2017). Total phenolic content, antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of coconut (Cocos nuceifera L.) testa and selected bean seed coats. Italian Journal of Food Science, 29, 742–753.

Adetuyi F. O., Badejo O. F., Ikujenlola A. V., & Omosuli S. V. (2009). Storage influence on the functional properties of malted and unmalted maize (Zea mays L ssp mays) and soybean (Glycine max L Merrill) flour blends. African Journal of Food Science, 3(2), 56–60.

Ahmad J., Taher A., Mulla M. Z., Al-Hazza A., & Luciano G. (2016). Effect of sieve particle size on functional, thermal, rheological, and pasting properties of Indian and Turkish lentil flour. Journal of Food Engineering, 186, 34–41.

AOAC International. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th eds. Washington, DC. AOAC International, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Appiah P., Sunil L., Gopala Krishnan A. G., & Suresh Kumar G. (2016). Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of testa extracts of commercial wet and dry coconuts and cakes. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 7(9), 9–13.

Aremu M. O., Olaofe O., & Akintayo E. T. (2007). Functional properties of some Nigerian varieties of legume see flours and flour concentration effect on foaming and gelation properties. Journal of Food Technology, 5, 109–115.

Arivalagan M., Roy T. K., Yasmeen A. M., Pavithra K. C., Jwala P. N., Shivasankara K. S., Manikantan M. R., Hebbar K. B., & Kanadec S. R. (2018). Extraction of phenolic compounds with antioxidant potential from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) testa and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids using UPLC coupled with TQD-MS/MS. Food Science and Technology, 92, 116–126.

Baljeet S. Y, Ritika B. Y., & Roshan L. Y. (2010). Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making. International Food Research Journal, 17(4), 1067–1076.

CDA. (2016). Annual Report of the Coconut Development Authority. Retrieved from

Chandra S., & Shamsher. (2013). Assessment of functional properties of different flours. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(38), 4849–4852.

Chandra S., Singh S., & Kumari D., 2015. Evaluation of functional properties of composite flours and sensorial attributes of composite flour biscuits. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(6), 3681–3688.

Coffman C. V., & Garcia V. V. (1977). Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mung bean flour. Journal of Food Technology, 12, 473–480.

De la Hera E., Gomez M., & Rosell C. M. (2013). Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98, 421–427.

Dat L. Q., & Phuong T. H. (2017). Functional properties and influences of coconut flour on texture of dough and cookies. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 55(5A), 100–107.

Geetha V., Bhavana K. P., Chetana R., Gopala Krishna A. G., & Suresh Kumar G. (2016). Studies on the composition and in-vitro antioxidant activities of concentrates from coconut testa and tender coconut water. Journal of Food Process Technology, 7(5), 88.

Guillon F., & Champ M. (2000). Structural and physical properties of dietary fibers, and consequences of processing on human physiology. Food Research International, 33, 233–245.

Igbabul B. D., Bello F. A., & Ani E. C. (2014). Effect of fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of defatted coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) flour. Sky Journal of Food Science, 3(5), 34–40.

Jitngarmkusol S., Hongsuwankul J., & Tananuwong K. (2008). Chemical compositions, functional properties, and microstructure of defatted macadamia flours. Food Chemistry, 110, 23–30.

Kaushal P., Kumar V., & Sharma H. K. (2012). Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, anti-nutritional, and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa) flour, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 48, 59–68.

Lima E. B. C., Sousa C. N. S., Meneses L. N., Ximenes N. C., Santos Júnior M. A., Vasconcelos G. S., Lima N. B. C., Patrocínio M. C. A., Macedo D., & Vasconcelos S. M. M. (2015). Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 48, 953–964.

Marasinghe S. S. K., Marikkar J. M. N., Yalegama C., Wimalasiri S., Seneviratne P. R. G., Weerasooriya, R., & Liyanage R. (2019). Comparison of inter varietal differences in chemical composition and nutritional properties of coconut testa flour. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 47, 349–356.

Marikkar J. M. N., & Madhrapperuma W. S. (2012). Coconut. Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Postharvest Physiology, Processing, and Packaging (Ed Muhammed Siddiq). John-Wiley Publishing Co., Ames, Iowa, USA.

Narayana K., & Narsinga R. M. S. (1982). Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) flour. Journal of Food Science, 42, 534–538.

Ogunlakin G. O., Oke M. O., Babarinde G. O., & Olatunbosun D. G. (2012). Effect of drying methods on proximate composition and physico-chemical properties of cocoyam flour. American Journal of Food Technology, 7(4), 245–250.

Oladele A. K., & Aina J. O. (2007). Chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(21), 2473–2476.

Okaka J. C., & Potter N. N. (1977). Functional and storage properties of cow pea-wheat flour blends in bread making. Journal of Food Science, 42, 828–833.

Peyrano F., Speroni F., & Avanza M. V. (2016). Physicochemical and functional properties of cowpea protein isolates treated with temperature or high hydrostatic pressure. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 33, 38–46.

Sosulski F. W., Garatt M. O., & Slinkard A. E. (1976). Functional properties of ten legume flours. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 9, 66–69.

Suntharalingam S., & Ravindran G. (1993). Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 43, 19–27.

Wang L., & Flores R. A. (2000). Effect of flour particle size on the textural properties of flour tortillas. Journal Cereal Science 31, 263–272.

Yasumatsu K., Sawada K., Moritaka S., Misaki M., Toda J., Wada T., & Ishii K. (1972). Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 36(5), 719–727.

Zhang Y., Zheng Y., Duan K., & Gui Q. (2015). Preparation, antioxidant activity and protective effect of coconut testa oil extraction on oxidative damage to human serum albumin. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51, 946–953.

How to Cite
Marikkar, N., Marasinghe, S., Yalegama, C., & Hewapathirana, D. (2021). The Physical and Functional Properties of Partially Defatted Coconut Testa Flour. CORD, 37, 1-12.