Physicochemical and Rheology Properties of Ice Cream Prepared from Sunflower Oil and Virgin Coconut Oil
In the last decade, increasing trends towards the consumption of healthier foods have forced processors of high-fat products (ice cream) to shift their formulations to higher proportions of unsaturated or “healthier” fats. Vegetable oils such as sunflower oil and VCO can be used as a substitute for milk fat, milk solids not fat (skim milk powder), sweeteners, stabilizers and emulsifiers, and mineral water in making ice cream. A study was carried out to determine the effects of the use of the ratio of sunflower oil: virgin coconut oil with palm fruit as a stabilizer in the production of ice cream on physicochemical properties (pH, proximate, overrun, viscosity, and melting rate). The use of palm fruit is based on the content of galactomannan in palm fruit. Premium ice cream with five different ratios of SO and VCO (15:0), (10:5), (7.5:7.5), (5:10), (15:0). The ice cream production involves mixing, pasteurization, homogenization, aging, and freezing. The physicochemical result shows ice cream sample with a ratio SO:VCO (5:10) obtained good physical properties, the lowest first-time drop/ shape retention, and a low melting rate compared to the others. The rheological behavior of ice cream is the non-Newtonian fluids with a pseudoplastic behavior. The apparent viscosity decreased with increasing shear rate.
Abdel-Haleem, A. M., & Awad, R. A. (2015). Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan. Journal of Food Science and technology, 52(10), 6425-6434.
Anjo, F. A., Saraiva, B. R., Da Silva, J. B., Ribeiro, Y. C., Bruschi, M. L., Riegel-Vidotti, I. C., ... & Matumoto-Pintro, P. T. (2021). Acacia mearnsii gum: A residue as an alternative gum Arabic for food stabilizer. Food Chemistry, 344, 128640.
Arbuckle, M. S., Marshall, R. T. (1996). Ice Cream, 5th ed. New York: Chapman dan Hall.
Awogbemi, O., Onuh, E. I., & Inambao, F. L. (2019). Comparative study of properties and fatty acid composition of some neat vegetable oils and waste cooking oils. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 14(3), 417-425.
[AOAC] Analysis of Association Analytical Chemistry. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of Association Analytical Chemistry. Arlington (GB): AOAC Inc.
[APCC] Asian Pacific Coconut Community. (2009). APCC Quality Standards Virgin Coconut Oil. Jakarta: APCC Inc.
Benjamins, J., Vingerhoeds, M. H., Zoet, F. D., De Hoog, E. H., & Van Aken, G. A. (2009). Partial coalescence as a tool to control sensory perception of emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(1), 102-115.
Bourne, M. C. (2002). Physics and texture. Chapter 3 Food texture and viscosity. concept and measurement. London, UK: Academic Press (pp. 59-106).
Chalermnon, N. (2013). Properties of oil-in-water emulsions and ice creams made from coconut milk: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Science at Massey University, New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, Massey University).
Chang, Y., & Hartel, R. W. (2002). Stability of air cells in ice cream during hardening and storage. Journal of Food Engineering, 55(1), 59-70.
dos Santos Cruxen, C. E., Hoffmann, J. F., Zandoná, G. P., Fiorentini, Â. M., Rombaldi, C. V., & Chaves, F. C. (2017). Probiotic butiá (Butia odorata) ice cream: Development, characterization, stability of bioactive compounds, and viability of Bifidobacterium lactis during storage. LWT Food Science Technology, 55, 89-93.
Davies, E., Dickinson, E., & Bee, R. (2000). Shear stability of sodium caseinate emulsions containing monoglyceride and triglyceride crystals. Food Hydrocolloids, 14(2), 145-153.
Dos Santos, V. R. F., Souza, B. W. S., Teixeira, J. A., Vicente, A. A., & Cerqueira, M. A. (2015). Relationship between galactomannan structure and physicochemical properties of films produced thereof. Journal of food science and technology, 52(12), 8292-8299.
Eisner, M. D., Wildmoser, H., & Windhab, E. J. (2005). Air cell microstructuring in a high viscous ice cream matrix. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 263(1-3), 390-399.
Fredrick, E., Walstra, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2010). Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions. Advances in colloid and interface science, 153(1-2), 30-42.
Fuangpaiboon, N., & Kijroongrojana, K. (2015). Qualities and sensory characteristics of coconut milk ice cream containing different low glycemic index (GI) sweetener blends. International Food Research Journal, 22(3), 1138-1147.
Goff, H., & Hartel, R.W. (2013). Ice Cream Seventh Edition (Seventh). London: Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London.
Guo, Y., Zhang, X., Hao, W., Xie, Y., Chen, L., Li, Z., ... & Feng, X. (2018). Nano-bacterial cellulose/soy protein isolate complex gel as fat substitutes in ice cream model. Carbohydrate polymers, 198, 620-630.
Gunstone, F. (2009). The chemistry of oils and fats: sources, composition, properties and uses. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
Halim, N. R. A., Shukri, W. H. Z., Lani, M. N., & Sarbon, N. M. (2014). Effect of different hydrocolloids on the physicochemical properties, microbiological quality and sensory acceptance of fermented cassava (tapai ubi) ice cream. International Food Research Journal, 21(5), 1825.
Javidi, F., Razavi, S. M., Behrouzian, F., & Alghooneh, A. (2016). The influence of basil seed gum, guar gum and their blend on the rheological, physical and sensory properties of low fat ice cream. Food Hydrocolloids, 52, 625-633.
Karaca, O. B., GÜVEN, M., Yasar, K., Kaya, S., & Kahyaoglu, T. (2009). The functional, rheological and sensory characteristics of ice creams with various fat replacers. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 62(1), 93-99.
Katja, D. G. (2012). Kualitas minyak bunga matahari komersial dan minyak hasil ekstraksi biji bunga matahari (Helianthus annuus L.). Jurnal ilmiah sains, 12(1), 59-64.
Kurt, A., & Atalar, I. (2018). Effects of quince seed on the rheological, structural and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Food Hydrocolloids, 82, 186-195.
Lomolino, G., Zannoni, S., Zabara, A., Da Lio, M., & De Iseppi, A. (2020). Ice recrystallisation and melting in ice cream with different proteins levels and subjected to thermal fluctuation. International Dairy Journal, 100, 104557.
Li, M., Li, Y., Wang, R., Wang, Y., Li, Y., & Zhang, L. (2020). Effects of triglycerol monostearate on physical properties of recombined dairy cream. International Dairy Journal, 103, 104622.
Maity, T., Saxena, A., & Raju, P. S. (2018). Use of hydrocolloids as cryoprotectant for frozen foods. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 58(3), 420-435.
Marshall, R. T., Goff, H. D., & Hartel, R. W. (2003) Ice Cream. 6th Ed. New York: Plenum Publishers.
Méndez-Velasco, C., & Goff, H. D. (2011). Enhancement of fat colloidal interactions for the preparation of ice cream high in unsaturated fat. International dairy journal, 21(8), 540-547.
Méndez-Velasco, C., & Goff, H. D. (2012). Fat structure in ice cream: A study on the types of fat interactions. Food Hydrocolloids, 29(1), 152-159.
Muse, M. R., & Hartel, R. W. (2004). Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness. Journal of dairy science, 87(1), 1-10.
Nadeem, M., Abdullah, M., & Ellahi, M. Y. (2010). Effect of incorporating rape seed oil on quality of ice cream. Mediterranean journal of nutrition and metabolism, 3(2), 121-126.
Reena, M. B., Reddy, S. R., & Lokesh, B. R. (2009). Changes in triacylglycerol molecular species and thermal properties of blended and interesterified mixtures of coconut oil or palm oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111(4), 346-357.
Rousseau, D. (2002). Fat crystal behavior in food emulsions. Physical properties of lipids, 219-264.
Rowe, R. C., Sheskey, P., & Quinn, M. (2009). Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients. Libros Digitales-Pharmaceutical Press.
Sacchi, R., Caporaso, N., Squadrilli, G. A., Paduano, A., Ambrosino, M. L., Cavella, S., & Genovese, A. (2019). Sensory profile, biophenolic and volatile compounds of an artisanal ice cream (‘gelato’) functionalised using extra virgin olive oil. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 18, 100173.
Merkus, H. G., & Meesters, G. M. (Eds.). (2013). Particulate products: Tailoring properties for optimal performance (Vol. 19). Springer Science & Business Media.
Sofjan, R. P., & Hartel, R. W. (2004). Effects of overrun on structural and physical characteristics of ice cream. International dairy journal, 14(3), 255-262.
Shukri, W. H. Z., Hamzah, E. N. H., Halim, N. R. A., Isa, M. I. N., & Sarbon, N. M. (2014). Effect of different types of hydrocolloids on the physical and sensory properties of ice cream with fermented glutinous rice (tapai pulut). International Food Research Journal, 21(5), 1777-1787.
Soukoulis, C., Chandrinos, I., & Tzia, C. (2008). Study of the functionality of selected hydrocolloids and their blends with κ-carrageenan on storage quality of vanilla ice cream. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(10), 1816-1827.
Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2008). Es Krim. SNI 01-3713-2018.
Sung, K. K., & Goff, H. D. (2010). Effect of solid fat content on structure in ice creams containing palm kernel oil and high‐oleic sunflower oil. Journal of food science, 75(3), C274-C279.
Suryani, S., Sariani, S., Earnestly, F., Marganof, M., Rahmawati, R., Sevindrajuta, S., ... & Fudholi, A. (2020). A comparative study of virgin coconut oil, coconut oil and palm oil in terms of their active ingredients. Processes, 8(4), 402.
Syed, Q. A., Anwar, S., Shukat, R., & Zahoor, T. (2018). Effects of different ingredients on texture of ice cream. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Engineering, 8(6), 422-435.
Tako, M., Tamaki, Y., & Teruya, T. (2018). Discovery of unusual highly branched galactomannan from seeds of Desmanthus illinoensis. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 9(2), 101-116.
Vanapalli, S. A., & Coupland, J. N. (2001). Emulsions under shear—the formation and properties of partially coalesced lipid structures. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4-6), 507-512.
Vereecken, J., Foubert, I., Meeussen, W., Lesaffer, A., & Dewettinck, K. (2009). Fat structuring with partial acylglycerols: Effect on solid fat profiles. European journal of lipid science and technology, 111(3), 259-272.
Vlachopoulos, J., & Polychronopoulos, N. D. (2012). Basic Concepts in Polymer Melt Rheology and Their Importance in Processing: In Applied Polymer Rheology. Polymeric Fluids with Industrial Applications. M. Kontopoulou, ed Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.
Zhang, Z., & Goff, H. D. (2005). On fat destabilization and composition of the air interface in ice cream containing saturated and unsaturated monoglyceride. International Dairy Journal, 15(5), 495-500.
Zhao, N., Zou, H., Sun, S., & Yu, C. (2020). The interaction between sodium alginate and myofibrillar proteins: The rheological and emulsifying properties of their mixture. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 161, 1545-1551.