Fatty Acids Profile, Oxidative and Hydrolysis Stability of Virgin Coconut Oil and Palm Stearin Based Human Milk Fat Analog

  • Steivie Karouw
Keywords: interesterification, gas chromatography, peroxide value, lauric acid, palmitic acid


The objectives of the research are to evaluate fatty acids profile, oxidative and hydrolysis stability of human milk fat (HMF) analog by using virgin coconut oil (VCO) and palm stearin as raw materials. The HMF analog was synthesized through enzymatic interesterification catalyzed by lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. The fatty acid profiles of interesterification products were monitored using gas chromatography. Oxidative stability test was carried out for up to 72 hours at 60oC. The peroxide value was measured during 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of storage duration. Hydrolysis stability test was held for up to 8 days at room temperature. The free fatty acid content was monitored during 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage. The results showed that the resulted HMF analog having high percentage of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position, similar to that of HMF. The palmitic acid content in the sn-2 position was around 39.71%. The MCFAs were esterified in the sn-1 and sn-3 position and the main fatty acid constituent was lauric acid of 39.37%. The obtained HMF analog was stable to oxidative and hydrolysis deterioration as indicated by the peroxide value and free fatty acid content during storage.

Author Biography

Steivie Karouw

Indonesian Palmae Research Institute, Manado-95001, North Sulawesi, Indonesia


Adnan, M. 1997. Teknik Kromatografi untuk Analisis Bahan Makanan. Penerbit Andi. Yogyakarta. 190 pp.
Akoh, C.C. and Moussata, C.O. 2001. Characterization and oxidative stability of enzimatically produced fish and canola oil-based structured lipids. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society 78(1): 25-78.
Gunstone, F.D. 1996. Fatty Acids and Lipid Chemistry. Champman & Hall, London. 252 pp.
Hamam, F. and Shahidi, F. 2006. Acidolysis reactions lead to esterification of endogenous tocopherols and compromised oxidative stability of modified oils. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 54: 7319-7323.
Innis, S.M., Dyer, R. and Nelson, C.M. 1994. Evidence that palmitic acid is absorbed as sn-2 monoacylglycerol from human milk by breast-fed infants. Lipids 29(8): 541-545.
Ilyasoglu, H., Gultekin-Ozguven, M. and Pzcelik, B. 2011. Production of human milk fat substitute with medium chain fatty acids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis: optimization by responese surface methodology. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 44: 999-1004.
Jensen, R.G. 2002. Invited review: the composition of bovine milk lipids: January1995 to December 2000. Journal of Dairy Science 85: 295-350.
Karouw, S., Suparmo, Hastuti, P. and Utami, T. 2013. Hidrolisis Enzimatis Stearin Sawit menjadi Monogliserida oleh Lipase dari Rhizomucor miehei dan Pankreas. Agritech Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 33(1): 53-59.
Kuipers, R.S., Luxwolda, M.F., Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.J. and Muskiet, F.A.J. 2012. Fatty acid compositions of preterm and term colostrum, transitional and mature milks in a sub-Saharan population with high fish intakes. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 86: 201-207.
Li, Y., Mu, H., Andersen, J.E.T., Xu, X., Meyer, O. and Orngreen, A. 2009. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption. Food Research International 43: 739-744.
Lien, E.L., Boyle, F.G., Yuhas, R., Tomarelli, R.M. and Quinlan, P. 1997. The effect of triglyceride positional distribution on fatty acid absorption in rats. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutritions 25: 167-174.
Maduko, C.O., Akoh, C.C. dan Park, Y.W. 2007. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs. Journal Dairy Sci. 90:594-601.
Maduko, C.O., Park, Y.W. and Akoh, C.C. 2008. Characterization and oxidative stability of structured lipid: infant milk fat analog. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society 85: 197-204.
Marina, A.M., Che Man, Y.B. and Nazimah, S.A.H. 2009. Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society 86: 301-307.
Marseno, D.W., Indrati, R. and Ohta, Y. 1998. A simplified method for determination of free fatty acids for soluble and immobilized lipase assay. Indonesian Food Nutrition Progress. 5(2): 79-83.
Martin, D., Regiero, G. and Senorans, F.J. 2010. Oxidative stability of structured lipids. Europe Food Research Technology 231:635-653.
Neff, W.E., Mounts, T.L. Rinsch, W.M., Konishi, H. and El-Agaimy, M.A. 1994. Oxidative stability of purified canola oil triacylglycerols with altered fatty acid composition as affected by triacylglycerol composition and structure. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 71 (10): 1101-1109.
Nielsen, N.S., Yang, T., Xu, X. and Jacobsen, C. 2006. Production and oxidative stability of a human milk fat substitute produce from lard by enzyme technology in a pilot packed-bed reactor. Food Chemistry 94: 53-60.
Seriburi, V. and Akoh, C.C. 1998. Enzymatic interesterification of lard and high oleic sunflower oil with Candida antartica lipase to produce plastics fats. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society 75(10): 1339-1345.
Yuhas, R., Pramuk, K. and Lien, E.L. 2006. Human milk composition from nine countries. Lipids 41(9): 851-858.
Yuksel, A. and Yesilcubuk, N.S. 2012. Enzymatic production of human milk fat analog containing stearidonic acid and optimization of reactions by response surface methodology. Food Science an Technology. 46: 210-216.
How to Cite
Steivie Karouw. (2014). Fatty Acids Profile, Oxidative and Hydrolysis Stability of Virgin Coconut Oil and Palm Stearin Based Human Milk Fat Analog . CORD, 30(2), 9. https://doi.org/10.37833/cord.v30i2.71