CORD <p>Cord is a semi-annual Journal of the International Coconut Community (ICC) devoted to coconut research and development (R &amp; D). The ICC is the first commodity based organization established under the auspices of United Nations-Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) in 1969. It is an independent intergovernmental organization, currently consisting of nineteen member countries, namely: Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, and Vietnam. The objectives of the ICC are to promote, coordinate and harmonize all activities of the coconut industry to achieve the maximum socio-economic development of the industry. In addition to Cord, the ICC publishes The Cocommunity (monthly newsletter), Coconut Statistical Yearbook (yearly) and Cocoinfo International (semi-annual popular Journal on the coconut industry) and other ad-hoc publications. Cord welcomes original research articles on any aspect of the coconut industry. The views expressed in Cord do not necessarily represent those of the editors or the ICC. Although the editors are responsible for the selection and acceptance of articles, the responsibility for the opinions expressed and for the accuracy of statements rests with the authors.</p> International Coconut Community en-US CORD 0215-1162 Evaluation of Coconut Based Anacardium occidentale Agroforestry System to Improve the Soil Properties of Coconut Growing Lands in Wet, Intermediate and Dry Zone of Sri Lanka <p>This study was intended to assess the impact of coconut based Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) agroforestry systems on soil fertility of degraded coconut lands in wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka. Two treatments were evaluated according to randomized complete block design with three replicates. Coconut based agroforestry systems intercropped with A. occidentale and sole coconut were evaluated as two treatments. Soils from three depths were analyzed for its’ chemical, physical and biological properties. According to the esults, higher total N, available P and exchangeable K levels were shown in sole coconut systems than A. occidentale intercropped system while the higher total N levels (2% higher than top soil and 27% higher than deepr soil) were observed in sub soils compared top and deep soils. Higher P content was observed in top soils than in deeper soils. The exchangeable K was observed in higher quantities in sub soil than in deeper soils and was varied with locations. Organic matter content in intercropping of A. occidentale has been increased by 37% and the highest was observed in top soils. Soil bulk density has been reduced by 9% in A. occidentale intercropped system enhancing the root growth. Bulk density has been increased with the depth of the soil. Higher soil microbial activity was observed in A. occidentale intercropped system and it was 22% higher than sole coconut system. Sole coconut system has 50% higher soil moisture percentage and the highest was recorded in sub soils. This study confirms that intercropping of A. occidentale has a positive effect on improving soil fertility of degraded coconut growing soils in wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka.</p> S. H. S. Senarathne Copyright (c) 2019 International Coconut Community 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 35 01 50 50 10.37833/cord.v35i01.5 Effect of Immersion in Calcium Chloride Solution on the Characteristic of Coconut Chips during Storage <p>The quality of coconut chips can be increased, through efforts to improve processing by immersing the coconut meat in CaCl<sub>2</sub> solution. The various concentrations of CaCl<sub>2</sub> solution are 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%. Furthermore, the effect of treatments was evaluated on the characteristic of coconut chips for 0 months, 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months of storage in plastic coated aluminum foil packaging. The results showed that coconut chips from DMT coconut meat with fruit 9 months old contain 2.36-2.49% moisture, 2.36-2.55% ash, 3.87-5.35% protein, 37.31-45.35% fat, 50.15-53.23% carbohydrate and 4.93-5.48% crude fiber. Immersion in CaCl<sub>2</sub> solution and storage time increased the water content of coconut chips. The results of organoleptic testing showed that coconut chips still preferred by respondent up to 6 months of storage. The higher concentration of CaCl<sub>2</sub> solution was used, resulting in smaller pressure (gram force) to break or destroy coconut chips, which can be interpreted that coconut chips have a crispness that is still good. Next, the color measurement uses Chromameter Konica Minolta CR-400, L (Lightness) value to 6 months ranged from 76.39-77.65, which indicated that the color of the product is still predominantly bright white.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Rindengan Barlina Linda Trivana Engelbert Manaroinsong Copyright (c) 2019 International Coconut Community 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 35 01 10 10 10.37833/cord.v35i01.6 Coir Pith – A Medium for Oil Absorption <p>Coir pith, the byproduct of coconut husk, due to its abundance nature and its porous structure can be effectively used for oil adsorption. Modification of coir pith to make as hydrophobic may allow them to be used for oil adsorption. Oil spills can destroy marine aquatic life and have a great impact on environment. In this study coir pith have been treated enzymatically (Lipase, Protease &amp; Glucanase) and chemically (Acetylation) to impart hydrophobicity and to enhance oil adsorption capacity. The coir pith samples were characterized periodically by FTIR, SEM. The extent of acetylation was evaluated by weight percent gain.The results suggests that acetylated coir pith could be beneficial in oil adsorption and potentially provide a low cost environmentally friend adsorbent for oil spill.</p> Anita Das Ravindranath Copyright (c) 2019 International Coconut Community 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 35 01 13 13 10.37833/cord.v35i01.9 Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis of Virgin Coconut Oil, Palm Olein, and their Adulterated Blends <p><strong>Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a premium product with a high market value. Its authenticity and quality assurance are important to safeguard consumers from fraudulent practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adulteration by palm olein (PO) on differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) heating and cooling profiles of VCO. Pure samples of VCO, PO and their adulterated blends (5 to 30%, w/w) were subjected to thermal analysis by DSC according to a specified temperature program. DSC thermal analysis system software and SAS statistical system were used subsequently to analyze thermal data. Both cooling and heating curves of VCO were found to be vivid for fingerprint comparison of qualitative identification at 5% level of adulteration. </strong></p> J.M.N. Marikkar Copyright (c) 2019 International Coconut Community 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 35 01 9 9 10.37833/cord.v35i01.10 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies on Population Changing Pattern of Pennisetum polystachion in Coconut Plantations of Sri Lanka <p><em>Pennisetum polystachion</em> is a major problematic monocotyledonous weed species and a perennial problem in intermediate zone of coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of different management systems on <em>P. polystachion</em> seedling emergence patterns.The tested treatments were application of glyphosate (T<sub>1</sub>), cover cropping with <em>Pueraria phaseoloides</em> (T<sub>2</sub>), tractor harrowing (T<sub>3</sub>), tractor slashing (T<sub>4</sub>) and tractor ploughing (T<sub>5</sub>). All the treatments were applied twice a year except T<sub>2</sub>. As T<sub>2 </sub>cover crop at the initiation of the experiment and over grown conditions were managed by harrowing once a year. Based on the reduction in weed biomass, cover cropping (T<sub>2</sub>) was the best to reduce the <em>P. polystachion</em> population and to reduce <em>P. polystachion</em> seedling emergence density in the field. Chemical weeding was the second-best method to control the <em>P. polystachion</em> population in the field. The effectiveness of slashing in reducing weed seedling emergence density was lower than cover cropping and chemical weeding methods. The weed seedling emergence densities were almost similar in ploughed and harrowed plots. The seed depth of emerged seedling was very high in harrowed and ploughed treatments when compared to other treatments. Results given by T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> indicates that loosening the soil creates more favorable environment for the germination of weed seeds buried in soil. Therefore, it can be argued that the elimination of weed seeds in the top 2cm or 4cm in the soil seed bank by any means is likely to reduce the level of weed infestation by about 60% to 95%. Results also indicated that burying rhizomes in ploughing and harrowing treatment plots at the depths below 30 - 40 cm is effective in controlling germination of this weed species. This experiment also suggested that keeping rhizomes on the soil surface without burying for durations of 5 – 15 days would produce weak plants with poor development.</p> S.H.S. Senarathne Copyright (c) 2019 International Coconut Community 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 35 01 8 8 10.37833/cord.v35i01.12