CORD <p>Cord is an annual Journal of the International Coconut Community (ICC) devoted to coconut research and development (R &amp; D). The ICC is the first commodity based organization established under the auspices of United Nations-Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) in 1969. It is an independent intergovernmental organization, currently consisting of twenty one member countries, namely: Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, and Vietnam. The objectives of the ICC are to promote, coordinate and harmonize all activities of the coconut industry to achieve the maximum socio-economic development of the industry. In addition to Cord, the ICC publishes The Cocommunity (monthly newsletter), Coconut Statistical Yearbook (yearly) and Cocoinfo International (semi-annual popular Journal on the coconut industry) and other ad-hoc publications. Cord welcomes original research articles on any aspect of the coconut industry. The views expressed in Cord do not necessarily represent those of the editors or the ICC. Although the editors are responsible for the selection and acceptance of articles, the responsibility for the opinions expressed and for the accuracy of statements rests with the authors.</p> en-US (Dr. Jelfina C. Alouw) (Mufid Febrianto) Wed, 18 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Physicochemical and Rheology Properties of Ice Cream Prepared from Sunflower Oil and Virgin Coconut Oil <p>In the last decade, increasing trends towards the consumption of healthier foods have forced processors of high-fat products (ice cream) to shift their formulations to higher proportions of unsaturated or “healthier” fats. Vegetable oils such as sunflower oil and VCO can be used as a substitute for milk fat, milk solids not fat (skim milk powder), sweeteners, stabilizers and emulsifiers, and mineral water in making ice cream. A study was carried out to determine the effects of the use of the ratio of sunflower oil: virgin coconut oil with palm fruit as a stabilizer in the production of ice cream on physicochemical properties (pH, proximate, overrun, viscosity, and melting rate). The use of palm fruit is based on the content of galactomannan in palm fruit. Premium ice cream with five different ratios of SO and VCO (15:0), (10:5), (7.5:7.5), (5:10), (15:0). The ice cream production involves mixing, pasteurization, homogenization, aging, and freezing. The physicochemical result shows ice cream sample with a ratio SO:VCO (5:10) obtained good physical properties, the lowest first-time drop/ shape retention, and a low melting rate compared to the others. The rheological behavior of ice cream is the non-Newtonian fluids with a pseudoplastic behavior. The apparent viscosity decreased with increasing shear rate.</p> Linda Trivana, Nugraha Edhi Suyatma, Dase Huunaefi, S. Joni Munarso, Adhitya Yudha Pradhana, Barlina Rindengan Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Wed, 18 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Collection methods to preserve nutritive and physicochemical properties of unfermented coconut (Cocos nucifera) sap <p>Quality evaluation of unfermented coconut (<em>Cocosnucifera</em>) sap was done using two sap collection methods of application of Hal bark (<em>Vateria acuminate)</em> to the clay pots of 4L (TM) and novel sap collection method (NSCM), during 12 hours (from 6pm to 6 am). The novel sap collecting device is a recent innovation by Coconut Research Institute(CRI) – Sri Lanka. Twelve tapped coconut palms (Dwraft variety, 45 years old) were used and filtered sap was stored (-18<sup>o</sup>C). Volume, pH, total soluble solids, alcohol content, total acidity, color, sugar profile, total phenols, EC50, Ascorbic acid content and mineral in two types of unfermented coconut sap samples were determined. The results revealed that coconut sap collected from NSCM has significantly high pH (5.99), moisture (83.20%), sucrose (13.71%), total sugar (19.99%) compared to the collected sap from TM. In contrast, the sap of TM method were significantly rich with total phenolic (65.90 mgGAE/100ml), EC50 (143.03 mg/ml), AEAC (0.2568 mg Vit C in 1g sample), browning index (6.76) and yellowing index (15.92). Moreover, Ca (39.3mg/L), Fe (3.08mg/L), Mn (0.96mg/L), Sr (0.14mg/L)&nbsp; Ba (0.33mg/L) were significantly high in TM. Hence, the novel sap collection method can be concluded as the best approach for collecting quality unfermented coconut sap with its natural quality.</p> Dilani Thilanka Hewa Pathirana, Isuru Wijesekara, L. L. W. C. Yalegama, M. A. Jayasinghe Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Wed, 26 Jul 2023 03:10:46 +0000 Per se performance of elite coconut genotypes and hybrids for economic quality traits and oil yield <p>The present study was conducted at Coconut Research Station, Aliyarnagar Tamil Nadu state of India. The experimental trees comprised of five tall coconut genotypes viz., IC 610370, IC 610371, IC 610372, IC 610374 and IC 610379 West Coast Tall (Check), and the hybrids viz., Chowghat Orange Dwarf x Aliyar 1 (COD x ALR1), Chowghat Orange Dwarf x West Coast Tall (COD x WCT), Aliyar 1 x Malayan Green Dwarf (ALR1 x MGD), Malayan Green Dwarf x Aliyar 1 (MGD x ALR), Kenthali Dwarf x Aliyar 1 (KTD x ALR1) and Veppankulam Hybrid Coconut VHC 2 (Check hybrid - released from Veppankulam Coconut Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu, India). Coconut palms of uniform size were taken from the chosen genotypes and hybrids for recording the observation. All the coconut genotypes and hybrids showed variation in yield, nut characters, and quality traits. The results of the present study revealed that the genotype IC 610370 and the hybrid COD x WCT recorded maximum values for all the recorded traits. This was followed by the genotype IC 610371 and the hybrid COD x ALR1.</p> Praneetha Subramanyam, Sudha R, Nivitha S, Suriya R, Mahalakshmi R Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Fri, 10 Nov 2023 07:30:17 +0000 Evaluation of biomass production of CO-3 fodder grass under coconut and its effect on nut yield of intermediate zone coconut plantations in Sri Lanka <p>Six CO-3 fodder grass planting systems under coconut palms were evaluated for six years concerning biomass production and coconut yield. This study was carried out at Potthukulama (PRS) Research Station of the Coconut Research Institute, in the Low Country Dry Zone of the Northwestern province of Sri Lanka, where the soil series is Ambakele. According to the experiment results, the highest CO-3 biomass was produced when five CO-3 rows were planted between coconut rows and harvested in 30 days lopping interval. There was no significant effect of CO-3 planting densities and lopping intervals on the yield of coconut.</p> S.H.S. Senarathne, S. A. S. T. Raveendra, S. S. Udumann, M. A. N. A. Kumara Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Fri, 10 Nov 2023 07:47:08 +0000 Genetic Relationships of Indigenous King Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Populations as Determined by SSR Markers <p>King Coconut (KC) is an indigenous and highly valuable germplasm resource in Sri Lanka. Yet, KC populations' genetic diversity, relationships, and conservation strategies are not fully understood. Indigenous old KC populations have been dispersed across a few ancient villages in Sri Lanka. Five geographically dispersed locations were selected in Sri Lanka, and 20 KC individuals from each location were collected for the current study. Six randomly selected samples from every geographical location, together with the standard two Sri Lanka Red Dwarf and two Sri Lanka Tall varieties were initially genotyped using 21 SSR markers for polymorphism. Based on the results, ten polymorphic SSR markers were selected and used for genotyping. Power Marker, STRUCTURE, and GenAlex software were used for the SSR genetic analysis. Results revealed 0.62 mean Gene Diversity (Hs), 4.2 mean allele number, and 0.55 polymorphic information content (PIC). Clear differentiation of populations was observed with the STRUCTURE and UPGMA dendrogram. Single branching in the UPGMA dendrogram for Anuradhapura and Marandawila KC populations revealed high genetic uniformity over multi-branched Kadugannawa and Colambageara populations. According to AMOVA, 64% of the genetic variation has been partitioned among populations, indicating moderate population differentiation. Detail analysis, including a higher number of KC populations and systematic molecular analysis using more SSRs/SNPs needed in the future before implementing conservation and utilization strategies.</p> Muditha Kasun Meegahakumbura, M. T. N. Indrachapa, T. S. Baddegama, M. M. Hettiarachchi, H. D. M. A. C. Dissanayaka, C. R. K. Samarasinghe, P. R. Weerasinghe, P. N. Dasanayake Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Mon, 18 Dec 2023 06:54:24 +0000 Partial Characterization of Polysaccharides Isolated from Defatted Desiccated Coconut Kernel <p>Industrial processing of coconut oil generates considerable biomass of dehydrated defatted coconut kernel (DDCK) which is composed of food-grade fiber. The objective of this study was to separate and isolate polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in defatted coconut kernel, and to determine the partial structure using sugar profile. Coconut cell wall polysaccharides (CCWP) obtained from DDCK were used to sequentially extract pectin (with 5% ammonium oxalate-oxalic acid), HCI (with 4% NaOH), HCII (with 10% NaOH), HCIII (with 17.5% NaOH) and the remaining fraction as non-extractible matter referred as NaOH non-extractive. Results indicated that CCWP composed of 19% pectin, 29.6% HCI, 12% HCII, no detectable HCIII and NaOH non-extractive of 15%. The sugar profile of pectin, was 6.14% rhamnose, 3.31% arabinose, 61.72% mannose and 18.71% galactose. HCI composed of rhamnose 13.29%, arabinose 4.49%, xylose 22.84%, mannose 50.98%, galactose 5.9% and glucose 3.39%. HCII contained rhamnose 37.12%, arabinose 3.35%, Mannose 27.15% and galactose 5.76%, while NaOH non-extractive contained rhamnose 22.5%, mannose 23.95%, galactose 16.35% and glucose 37.05%. Partial hydrolysis followed by concentration with Sephadex G15 size exclusion chromatography was able to separate oligosaccharide having rhamnose 15.3%, mannose 52.5% and galactose 32.2% from pectin while xylose 0.6%, mannose 95.6%, galactose 1.1% and glucose 2.7% from HCII. Results indicated the presence of rhamnogalactomannan and xylogalactoglucomanan in coconut kernel.</p> Loku Liyana Waduge Chandi Yalegama, Desiree Nedra Karunaratne, Ramaiah Sivakanesan Copyright (c) 2023 CORD Mon, 18 Dec 2023 07:04:41 +0000