Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of Defatted Coconut Flour Incorporated Biscuits
Defatted coconut kernel is the major by-product of the dry method of virgin coconut oil (VCO) processing which includes high fiber content. It is ground into a fine powder, has a high potential to use as a composite matrix for baked food items with wheat flour. The aim of this research is to compare nutritional characteristics of defatted coconut flour incorporated biscuits (CF), desiccated coconut incorporated commercial biscuits (DC) and wheat flour-based commercial biscuits (WF) using white bread (WB) as a reference. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and carbohydrate), Hydrolysis Index (HI) and Predicted Glycemic Index (PGI) of samples were performed through standard in-vitro analysis methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed that moisture (36.67±0.16 %) and protein (13.35±1.17 %) content of bread were significantly (p<0.05) higher while fat, fiber and ash content of CF incorporated biscuits were significantly (p<0.05) higher with the values of 26.67±1.87 %, 3.53±0.10 % and 4.70±2.61 % respectively. Free sugar glucose content (FSG) of WF was observed the highest significant (p<0.05) value of 5.88±1.03 % while the highest amount of rapidly available glucose (RAG) (81.45±5.27 %), slowly available glucose (SAG) (59.81±7.58 %), total glucose (TG) (99.16±5.56 %) were observed in reference food of bread. The PGI of three biscuit types belonging to the medium glycemic food with the values of 60.84, 64.53 and 62.90 respectively for CF, DC and WF treatments.
Babayan, V.K. 1987. Medium-chain triglycerides and structured lipids. Journal of Lipids, 22: 417-420.
Eleazu, C.O. 2016. The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as panacea for type 2 diabetes mellitus; prospects, challenges and solutions. African Health Sciences, 16 (2):468- 479.
Englyst, H.N, Quigley, M.E. and Hudson, G.J. 1995. Definition and measurement of dietary fibre. Eur Journal of Clin Nutr. 49:48–62.
Goni, I, Garcia-Alonso, A. and Saura-Calixto, F. 1997. A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Journal of Nutr Res., 17:427–437.
John, J, Sapa, N. K.R. and Shenoy, R. R. 2020. Virgin coconut oil ameliorates colchicine induced cognitive dysfunction- a preclinical study. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 26 (1): 1-12.
Miller, R.A, Maningat, C.C. and Hoseney, R.C. 2008. Modified wheat starches increase bread yield. J. Cereal Chemistry, 85(6):713–715.
Nani, R, Suparmo, Eni H. and Yustinus, M. 2017. In vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of Indonesian cowpea starch (Vignaunguiculata). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 16: 1-8.
Nevin, K.G. and Rajamohan, T. 2004. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Journal of clinical biochemistry, 37: 830-835.
Nurul-Iman, B.S, Kamisah, Y., Jaarin, K. and Qodriyah, H.M.S. 2013. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1-7.
Ocheme, O.B, Adedeji, O.E., Chinma, C.E., Yakubu, C.M. and Ajibo, U.H. 2018. Proximate composition, functional, and pasting properties of wheat and groundnut protein concentrate flour blends. Food Sci Nutr, 6:1173– 1178.
Oh, K, Hu, F.B, Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J. and Willett, W.C. 2005. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161: 672-679.
Okpala, L. C. and Egwu, P. N. 2015. Utilization of broken rice and cocoyam flour blends in the production of biscuits. Nigerian Food Journal, 33(1):8–11.
Rudolf, C, Bartekb, B., Martina, R., Jana, Z., Blanka, D., Ludmila, C., Pavel, S., Svatava, D. and Vilím, S. 2004. Determination of the glycaemic index of selected foods (white bread and cereal bars) in healthy persons. Biomed, 148(1): 17–25.
SLSI 98, (1988). Sri Lanka Standard Specification for Desiccated coconut, first edition, Sri Lanka Standard Institution, Colombo.
Thaiphanit, S. and Anprung, P. 2016. Physicochemical and emulsion properties of edible protein concentrate from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) processing by-products and the influence of heat treatment. Food Hydrocolloids, 52:756-765.
Trinidad, P.T, Divinagracia, H.V., Anacleta, S.L., Aida, C.M., Faridah, C.A., Joan, C.C. and Dina, B.M. 2003. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 90:551–556.
Woolnough, J.W, Monro, J.A., Brennan, C.S. and Bird, A.R. 2008. Simulating human carbohydrate digestion in vitro: A review of methods and the need for standardization. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol, 43: 2245–2256.
Yalegama, L.L.W.C, Karunaratne, D.N., Sivakanesan, R. and Jayasekara, C. 2013. Chemical and functional properties of fibre concentrates obtained from by-products of coconut kernel. Food Chemistry, 141: 124–130.
Zheng, F. M, and Yeong, Y.L. 2016. Virgin Coconut Oil and its Cardiovascular Health Benefits. Natural Product Communications, 11:8.