A Study on Acid Hydrolysis and Composition of Polysaccharides Concentrated from Coconut Kernel

  • Loku Liyana Waduge Chandi Yalegama Coconut Research Institute
  • Desiree Nedra Karunaratne Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  • Ramaiah Sivakanesan Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Keywords: Coconut kernel, soluble polysaccharide, insoluble polysaccharides, acid hydrolysis, monosaccharide composition


Defatted dehydrated coconut kernel powder (DDCP) is the by-product obtained from virgin coconut oil production through dry process. The aim of the study was to concentrate polysaccharides from DDCP and to investigate their acid hydrolysis capacity and the monosaccharides composition. Residual fat, protein and soluble sugars of DDCP were removed to concentrate coconut kernel Insoluble polysaccharides (CKIP) while water extract of DDCP was used to concentrate coconut kernel soluble polysaccharides (CKSP). Neutral detergent solution (NDS) was used to concentrate neutral detergent soluble polysaccharides (NDSP) and neutral detergent insoluble polysaccharides (NDIP) from CKIP. The acid detergent solution (ADS) was used to concentrate acid detergent soluble polysaccharides (ADSP) and acid detergent insoluble polysaccharides (ADIP) from CKIP. Results indicated fresh coconut kernel contained 7.2±1.5% carbohydrates and the content increased to 78.1±1.3% with the removal of residual fat, protein and sugars. The yields of the polysaccharide fractions were 46.0±3.1% (CKIP) and 9.2± 0.1% (CKSP), 10.2±0.3% (NDSP) and 78.3±4.2% (NDIP), 25.1±0.3% (ADSP) and 45.2±2.9% (ADIP). Trifluoracetic acid had a higher hydrolyzing capacity than sulphuric acid except for hydrolyzing of ADIP. The monosaccharides composition of the polysaccharides was significantly different (p<0.05) among the polysaccharide concentrates. The main monosaccharides in NDSP were glucose (73.86%) and xylose (19.7%) and, in ADSP were rhamnose (33.45%) and glucose (46.91%). Rhamnose (29.95%) arabinose (26.38%), xylose (21.56%) and mannose (12.87%) were present in CKSP while mannose (68.46%), galactose (20.59%) and xylose (10.59%) were present in CKIP. Results indicated that soluble polysaccharides of coconut kernel were hydrolyzed into monosaccharides readily compared to the insoluble polysaccharides.


Abbasiliasi, S., Tan, J. S., Bello, B., Ibrahim, T. A. T., Tam, Y. J., Ariff, A., & Mustafa, S. (2019). Prebiotic efficacy of coconut kernel cake’s soluble crude polysaccharides on growth rates and acidifying property of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in vitro. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 33(1), 1216-1227.

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (1990). Official methods of analysis.

Balasubramaniam, K. (1976). Polysaccharides of the kernel of maturing and matured coconuts. Journal of Food Science, 41(6), 1370-1373.

Bao, X., Fang, J., & Li, X. (2001). Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of a complex glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 65(11), 2384-2391.

Becker, M., Ahn, K., Bacher, M., Xu, C., Sundberg, A., Willför, S., ... & Potthast, A. (2021). Comparative hydrolysis analysis of cellulose samples and aspects of its application in conservation science. Cellulose, 28(13), 8719-8734.

Beegum, S., Sharma, M., Manikantan, M. R., & Gupta, R. K. (2017). Effect of virgin coconut oil cake on physical, textural, microbial and sensory attributes of muffins. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 52(2), 540-549.

Blakeney, A. B., Harris, P. J., Henry, R. J., & Stone, B. A. (1983). A simple and rapid preparation of alditol acetates for monosaccharide analysis. Carbohydrate Research, 113(2), 291-299.

Chen, W. J. L., & Anderson, J. W. (1981). Soluble and insoluble plant fiber in selected cereals and vegetables. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34(6), 1077-1082.

Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. T., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.

Fahey, G. C., Novotny, L., Layton, B., & Mertens, D. R. (2019). Critical factors in determining fiber content of feeds and foods and their ingredients. Journal of AOAC International, 102(1), 52-62.

Gosavi, P., Chaudhary, Y., & Durve-Gupta, A. (2017). Production of biofuel from fruits and vegetable wastes. European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, 5(3), 69-73.

Guo, N., Bai, Z., Jia, W., Sun, J., Wang, W., Chen, S., & Wang, H. (2019). Quantitative analysis of polysaccharide composition in Polyporus umbellatus by HPLC–ESI–TOF–MS. Molecules, 24(14), 2526.

Pathirana, H. H., Lakdusinghe, W. M. K., Yalegama, L. L. W. C., Chandrapeli, C. A. T. D., & Madusanka, J. A. D. (2020). Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of Defatted Coconut Flour Incorporated Biscuits. CORD, 36, 33-39.

Hoebler, C., Barry, J. L., David, A., & Delort-Laval, J. (1989). Rapid acid hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides and simplified quantitative determination of their neutral monosaccharides by gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 37(2), 360-367.

Im, H. J., & Yoon, K. Y. (2015). Production and characterisation of alcohol-insoluble dietary fibre as a potential sourcefor functional carbohydrates produced by enzymatic depolymerisation of buckwheat hulls. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 33(5), 449-457.

Kulkarni, A. D., Joshi, A. A., Patil, C. L., Amale, P. D., Patel, H. M., Surana, S. J., ... & Pardeshi, C. V. (2017). Xyloglucan: A functional biomacromolecule for drug delivery applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 104, 799-812.

Majeed, M., Majeed, S., Nagabhushanam, K., Arumugam, S., Natarajan, S., Beede, K., & Ali, F. (2018). Galactomannan from Trigonella foenum‐graecum L. seed: prebiotic application and its fermentation by the probiotic Bacillus coagulans strain MTCC 5856. Food science & nutrition, 6(3), 666-673.

Maurya, A. K., Pandey, R. K., Rai, D. I. P. T. I., Porwal, P. A. R. A. S., & Rai, D. C. (2015). Waste product of fruits and vegetables processing as a source of dietary fibre: A review. Trends Biosci, 8(19), 5129-5140.

Pavithra, S., Vidanarachchi, J. K., Sarmini, M., & Premaratne, S. (2019). Chemical composition and gross energy content of commonly available animal feedstuff in Sri Lanka. J. Natn. Sci. Foundation Sri Langka, 47(1), 79-87.

Prosky, L., Asp, N. G., Furda, I., Devries, J. W., Schweizer, T. F., & Harland, B. F. (1985). Determination of total dietary fiber in foods and food products: collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 68(4), 677-679.

Ramaswamy, L. (2013). Preparation of Bakery Products Using Coconut Flour and Glycemic Response on Normal Healthy Adults. CORD, 29(1), 10-10.

Saittagaroon, S., Kawakishi, S., & Namiki, M. (1983). Characterisation of polysaccharides of copra meal. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 34(8), 855-860.

Shi, L. (2016). Bioactivities, isolation and purification methods of polysaccharides from natural products: A review. International journal of biological macromolecules, 92, 37-48.

Sun, R., Jones, G. L., Tomkinson, J., & Bolton, J. (1999). Fractional isolation and partial characterization of non-starch polysaccharides and lignin from sago pith. Industrial Crops and Products, 9(3), 211-220.

Thongsook, T., & Chaijamrus, S. (2014). Modification of physiochemical properties of copra meal by dilute acid hydrolysis. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49(6), 1461-1469.

Soest, P. V. (1963). Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. Journal of the Association of official Agricultural Chemists, 46(5), 829-835.

Yalegama, L. L. W. C., & Chavan, J. K. (2006). Preparation of dietary fibre from coconut kernel. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Mysore), 43(5), 491-492.

How to Cite
Yalegama, L. L. W. C., Karunaratne, D. N., & Sivakanesan, R. (2022). A Study on Acid Hydrolysis and Composition of Polysaccharides Concentrated from Coconut Kernel. CORD, 38, 33-41. https://doi.org/10.37833/cord.v38i.436