Evaluation of Coconut Based Anacardium occidentale Agroforestry System to Improve the Soil Properties of Coconut Growing Lands in Wet, Intermediate and Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
This study was intended to assess the impact of coconut based Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) agroforestry systems on soil fertility of degraded coconut lands in wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka. Two treatments were evaluated according to randomized complete block design with three replicates. Coconut based agroforestry systems intercropped with A. occidentale and sole coconut were evaluated as two treatments. Soils from three depths were analyzed for its’ chemical, physical and biological properties. According to the esults, higher total N, available P and exchangeable K levels were shown in sole coconut systems than A. occidentale intercropped system while the higher total N levels (2% higher than top soil and 27% higher than deepr soil) were observed in sub soils compared top and deep soils. Higher P content was observed in top soils than in deeper soils. The exchangeable K was observed in higher quantities in sub soil than in deeper soils and was varied with locations. Organic matter content in intercropping of A. occidentale has been increased by 37% and the highest was observed in top soils. Soil bulk density has been reduced by 9% in A. occidentale intercropped system enhancing the root growth. Bulk density has been increased with the depth of the soil. Higher soil microbial activity was observed in A. occidentale intercropped system and it was 22% higher than sole coconut system. Sole coconut system has 50% higher soil moisture percentage and the highest was recorded in sub soils. This study confirms that intercropping of A. occidentale has a positive effect on improving soil fertility of degraded coconut growing soils in wet, intermediate and dry zones of Sri Lanka.
Alavalapati, J.R.R., Shrestha, R.K., Stainback, G.A., Matta, J.R. 2004. Agroforestry development: an environmental economic perspective. Agrofor Syst 61:299–310.
Anderson, J.M. and Ingram, J.S.I. 1993. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility. A Handbook of Methods 2nd ed. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. pp221.
Arnold, J. E. M. 1997. Retrospect and prospect. In farms, trees and farmers: Responses to agricultural intensification. J. E. M. Arnold and Peter A. Dewees (eds.). pp 271-287. Earthscan, London.
Bonneau, X. and Sugarianto, J. 1999. Intercropping with young hybrid coconut palms in climatically marginal areas. Plant. Rech. Dévelop. 6(1):13-29.
Brady, N. C., and Weil, R. R. 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soils (13th edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Burgess, R.J. 1981. The Intercropping of Smallholder Coconuts in Western Samoa; An Analysis Using Multi-Stage Linear Programming. Development Studies Centre, MADE Research Series No. 4. The Australian National University, Canberra.
De Costa, W.A.J.M., Sangakkara, U.R. 2006. Agronomic regeneration of soil fertility in tropical Asian smallholder uplands for sustainable food production. J. Agric. Sci., 144, 111–133.
Doran, J.W., Fraser, D.G., Culik, M.N., Liebhardt, W.C. 1988. Influence of alternative and conventional agricultural management on soil microbial process and nitrogen availability. Am. J. Alternative Agric. 2, 99–106.
Eriksen, J. 2005. Gross sulphur mineralization-immobilization turnover in soil amended with plant residues. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37, 2216–2224.
Fernando, L.H., Asghar, M and Opio, F. 1984. A review of small-scale production and marketing of coconut in Western Samoa. Alafua Agricultural Bull. 9(1), 1–29.
Hsieh, H.C. and Hsieh, C.F. 1990. The use of organic matter in Crop Production, Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre Taipei, China, Extension Bulleting No. 315: 18.
Jackson, M.L. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis (1st Ed), Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 111-204.
Jaiyeoba, I.A. 1995. Changes in Soil Properties Related to Different Land uses in part of Nigerian Northern Savanna. Soil Use and Management, 11, 84-89.
Jeyamala, M. and Soman P. 1999. Short term changes in soil fertility status in intensively managed Teak plantation. Indian Journal of Forestry, 22: 106-111.
Jones, M.J., and Weld, A. 1975. Soils of the West African Savanna: The Maintenance and Improvement of their Fertility. Haependen Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau. Kwara State of Nigeria. Kwara State Diary, Government Press Ilorin (1993).
Jose, S. 2009. Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agrofor Syst 76:1–10.
Kuchenbuch, R.O. and Ingram, K.T. 2004. Effects of soil bulk density on seminal and lateral roots of young maize plants (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 229–235.
Leelavathi, G.P., Naidu, M.V.S and Ramaratharam, N. 2009. Studies on genesis, classification and evaluation of soils for sustainable land use planning in Yerpedu Mandal of Chittor district, Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Socity of Soil Science, 57; 109-120.
Liyanage, M. de S. and Dassanayake, K.B. 1993. Experiences in coconut based farming systems in Sri Lanka. In: Advances in Coconut Research and Development (eds. Nair, M.K., et al.). Proc. of Intern. Sympos., Kasaragod 26–29 Nov. 1991, 357–367. Indian Soc. for Plantation Crops.
Liyanage, M., Tejwani, S.K.G. and Nair, P.K.R. 1985. Intercropping under coconut in Sri Lanka. Agroforestry Systems 2:215-228.
Long, A.J. and Nair, P.K.R. 1999. Trees Outside Forests: Agroforestry, Community, and Urban Forestry. New Forests 17(1-3): 145-174.
Magat, S.S. 2004. Growing of intercrops in coconut lads to generate more food and agricultural products, jobs and enhancing farm incomes. Coconut intercropping Sal- ient notes. Dept. of Agric., Phillippine Coconut Authority, Quezon City, Philip pines, pp. 7.
Mapa, R.B., Dassanayake, A.R. and Nayakekorale, H.B. 2005. Soils of the Intermediate zone of Sri Lanka: morphology, characterization and classification. Soil Science Society of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Nair, P.K.R. 1985. Classification of agroforestry systems. Agroforesty Systems, 3; 97-128.
Nelliat, E.V., K.V. Bavapp and P.K.R. Nair 1974. Multistoreyed cropping. A new dimension cropping for coconut plantations. World Crops. 26 (6): 262-266.
Ohler, J.G. 2007. Modern coconut management; palm cultivation a
nd products. FAO, Rome. http://ecoport.org/ep? Search Type=earticleView&earticleld=127&pa ge=1383.
Opio, F.A. 1990. The need for coconut based systems. In: Coconut Based Farming Systems (ed. Silva de, S.), Proc. of the XXVII COCOTECH Meeting, 25–29 June, Manila, Philippines, 1–15.
Punyawardena, B.V.R., Bandara, T.M.J., Munasinghe, M.A.K. and Banda, N.J. 2003. Agroecological regions of Sri Lanka. Natural Resources Management Centre, Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Reddy, K., Zablotowicz, R.M., Locke, M.A. and Koger 2003. Cover crop, tillage and herbicide effects on weeds, soil properties, microbial population, and soybean yields. Weed Science, 51, pp. 987-994.
Regmi, B.N. and Garforth, C. 2010. Trees outside forests and rural livelihoods: a study of Chitwan district, Nepal. Agroforesty Systems, 79; (3); 393-407.
Rudrappa, L., Purakayastha, T.J., Singh, D. and Bhadraray, S. 2006. Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools in a Typic Haplustept of semi-arid sub-tropical India. Soil and Tillage Research, 88, pp. 180–192.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis Systems, 1999. SAS 1, STAT Users Guide, Release, 7.00 Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, 1028.
Simard, R.R. 1993. Ammonium acetate Extractable Elements. In: Martin R, Carter S (Eds) Soil sampling and methods of analysis, Lewis Publisher, Florida, USA, 39-43
Srinivasarao, Ch., Vittal, K.P.R., Gajbhiye, P.N., Sumanta Kundu and Sharma, K.L. 2008. Distribution of micronutrients in soils in rainfed production systems of India. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development, 21, pp. 105-113.
Stotzky, L.M. Chemical and microbiological properties. In: black, C.A.E.; white, J.L.; Ensminger, L.E. & Clarke, F.E., ed. Methods of soil analysis. Madison, Soil Science Society of America, 1965. v.2. p.1550-1572.
Tamale, E., Jones, N. Riddihough, I. P. 1995. Participatory forestry in tropical and sub tropical countries. World Bank forestry series. Technical paper number 299.
Utomo, M., Frye, W.W. and Blevins, R.L. 1990. Sustaining soil nitrogen for soil using hairy vetch cover crop. Agronomy Journal, 82, pp. 979-983.
Walkley, A. and I.A. Black, 1934. An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and Prepared Modification of the Chronic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science, 34, 29-38.
Weerakoon, S. 2011. A new lease of life for cashew industry. Available online at http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2011/07/31/fea1.