Coconut Cryopreservation: Present Status and Future Prospects

  • Iroshini Welewanni
  • Dharshani Bandupriya
Keywords: Coconut germplasm, Medium-term conservation, Long-term conservation, Plant material, cryopreservation technique


Coconut is one of the most important small holder crops worldwide. Conservation of coconut as seeds or field gene banks is not effective due to a range of limitations. Cryopreservation, which is the conservation of living propagules at very low temperature (-196ºC), is the only method available currently for the long-term conservation of germplasm for problem plant species such as recalcitrant and vegetatively propagated plant species. This review summarizes different cryopreservation techniques that have been published from 1984 until the present in relation to different coconut material; it includes a brief discussion about short and medium-term cryopreservation before describing long-term preservation. It discusses factors affecting the process and success of cryopreservation, such as selection of plant material, pre-culture of tissues, osmoprotection, dehydration, cryo-storage, thawing and post-culturing of tissues, and finally to plants. The review also describes histological and ultra-structural studies on and the use of molecular markers to assess genetic stability after cryopreservation. Limitations and future directions related to coconut cryopreservation are discussed. Additional experiments are identified that will need to be undertaken to improve our understanding of the different cryopreservation methods.

Author Biographies

Iroshini Welewanni

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Colombo, Colombo 03, Sri   Lanka

Dharshani Bandupriya

Tissue Culture Division, Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka


Abraham, A. and Mathew, P.M. 1963. Cytology of coconut endosperm, Annals of Botany 27: 505–513.
Ai, P.F., Lu, L.P. and Song, J.J. 2012. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of Rabdosia rubescens by encapsulation-dehydration and evaluation of their genetic stability. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 108: 381–387.
Alla-N'Nan, O., Tiécoura, K., Bi, S.G., Verdeil, J-L. and Malaurie, B. 2014a. Ultrastructural changes during cryopreservation of plumules and embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 5 (6): 103-115.
Alla-N'Nan, O., Bi, S.G., Tiécoura, K. and Konan, J-L.K. 2014b. Use of plumules cryopreservation to save coconut germplasm in areas infected by lethal yellowing. African Journal of Biotechnology 13:1702-1706.
Assy-Bah, B. and Engelmann, F. 1992a. Cryopreservation of immature embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). CryoLetters 13: 67-74.
Assy-Bah, B. and Engelmann, F. 1992b. Cryopreservation of mature embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and subsequent regeneration of plantlets. CryoLetters 13: 117-126.
Bajaj, Y.P.S. 1984. Induction of growth in frozen embryos of coconut and ovaries of citrus. Current Science 53: 1215-1216.
Bajaj, Y.P.S. 1995. Cryopreservation of plant cell, tissue and organ culture for the conservation of germplasm and biodiversity. In: Y.P.S Bajaj (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Cryopreservation of Plant Germplasm I, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. 32: 3–28.
Bandupriya, H.D.D., Fernando, S.C., Verdeil, J-L. and Malaurie, B. 2007. Effect of abscisic acid on survival and recovery of cryopreserved plumule explants of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Cocos 18: 45-51.
Bandupriya, H.D.D., Fernando, S.C., Verdeil, J-L. and Malaurie B. 2010. Cryopreservation of encapsulated plumules of coconut: effect of transport/ store conditions. AsPac Journal of Molecular. Biology and Biotechnology 18 (1): 135-137.
Bandupriya, H.D.D., Fernando, S.C., Verdeil, J-L. and Malaurie, B. 2014. Efficient method of transporting coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos for cryopreservation of plumules by encapsulation/dehydration. Cord 30 (2): 19-30.
Benson, E.E., Reed, B.M., Brennan, R.M., Clacher, K.A. and Ross, D.A. 1996. Use of thermal analysis in the evaluation of cryopreservation protocols for Ribes nigrum L. germplasm. CryoLetters 17: 347-362.
Berjak, P., Walker, M., Mycock, D.J., Wesley-Smith, J., Watt, P. and Pammenter, N.W. 2000. Cryopreservation of recalcitrant zygotic embryos. In: F. Engelmann, H. Takagi (Eds.), Cryopreservation of Tropical Plant Germplasm. Current Progress and Application, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan / International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. pp. 140 - 155.
Chaudhury, R. 2003. Cryopreservation: Principles and Practices. Conservation biotechnology of plant germplasm. In: B.B. Mandal, R. Chaudhury, F. Engelmann, B. Mal, K.L. Tao, B.S. Dhillon (eds.), Proceedings of regional training course on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation of plant germplasm, NBPGR, New Delhi, India. pp. 179-186.
Chin, H.F. and Roberts, E.H. 1980. Recalcitrant crop seeds. Tropical Press SND, DHDI, Kuala Lumpur.
Chin, H.F., Krishnapillay, B. and Hor, Y.L. 1989. A note on the cryopreservation of embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. var. Mawa). Pertanika 12:183-186.
Coconut Statistical Year Book (2014). The Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC).
Crowe, J.H., Crowe, L.M., Carpenter, J.F., Rudolph, A.S., Wistrom, C.A., Spargo, B.J. and Anchordoguy, T.J. 1988. Interactions of sugars with membranes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 947: 367-84.
Cueto, C, Rivera, R.L., Kim, H.H., Kong, H.J., Baek, H.J., Sebastian, L. and Park, H.J. 2014. Development of Cryopreservation Protocols for Cryobanks of Coconut Zygotic Embryos. In II International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation 1039: 297-302.
Dussert, S., Engelmann, F. and Noirot, M. 2003. Development of probabilistic tools to assist in the establishment and management of cryopreserved plant germplasm collections. CryoLetters 24: 149-160.
Engelmann, F. 1991. In vitro conservation of tropical plant germplasm—a review. Euphytica 57: 227–243.
Engelmann, F., Dumet, D., Chabrillange, N., Abdelnour-Esquivel, A., Assy-Bah, B., Dereuddre, J. and Duval, Y. 1995. Factors affecting the cryopreservation of coffee, coconut and oil palm embryos. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 103: 27–31.
Engelmann, F. 1997. In vitro conservation methods. In: B.V. Ford-Lloyd, J.H. Newbury, and J.A. Callow (eds.), Biotechnology and plant genetic resources: conservation and use. CABI, Wallingford. pp. 119–162.
Engelmann, F. 1999. Cryopreservation of coconut germplasm. In: C. Oropeza, J-L. Verdeil, G.R. Ashburner, R. Cardeña, J.M. Santamaria (eds.), Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. pp. 289-296.
Engelmann, F. 2000. Importance of cryopreservation for the conservation of plant genetic resources. In: F. Engelmann, H. Takagi (eds.), Cryopreservation of tropical plant germplasm—current research progress and applications, JIRCAS, Tsukuba. pp. 8–20.
Engelmann, F. 2003. Plant cryopreservation: Current Status, Prospects and Limitatons. Conservation biotechnology of plant germplasm. In: B.B. Mandal, R. Chaudhury, F. Engelmann, B. Mal, K.L. Tao, B.S. Dhillon (eds.). Proceedings of regional training course on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation of plant germplasm, NBPGR, New Delhi, India. pp. 223-228.
Engelmann, F. 2004. Plant cryopreservation: progress and prospects. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant 40: 427–433.
Engelmann, F., Malaurie, B., N'Nan, O. and Borges, M. 2005. Status of cryopreservation research in coconut. In: P. Batugal, V.R. Rao, J. Oliver (eds.), Coconut Genetic Resources IPGRI-APO, Serdang, Malaysia. pp. 142-148.
Engelmann, F. 2011. Use of biotechnologies for the conservation of plant biodiversity. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant 47 (1): 5-16.
Engelmann, F. and Dussert, S. 2013. Cryopreservation. In: Conservation of Tropical Plant Species, Springer New York. pp. 107-119.
Fabre, J. and Dereuddre, J. 1990. Encapsulation-dehydration: A new approach to cryopreservation of Solanum shoot tips. CryoLetters 11:413-426.
Feng, C.H., Cui, Z.H., Li, B.Q., Chen, L., Ma, Y.L., Zhao, Y.H. and Wang, Q.H. 2013. Duration of sucrose preculture is critical for shoot regrowth of in vitro-grown apple shoot-tips cryopreserved by encapsulation-dehydration. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 112: 369–378.
Frison, E.A., Putter, C.A.J. and Diekmann, M. (eds.) 1993. FAO/IBPGR Technical guidelines for the safe movement of coconut germplasm. FAO/IBPGR, Rome.
Gomes‑Copeland, K.K.P., Lédo, A.D.S., Almeida, F.T.C.D., Miranda, R.P. and Santos, I.R.I. 2012. Assessing the viability of cryopreserved coconut zygotic embryos by electrolytic conductivity and potassium leaching. Pesquisa. Agropecuária Brasileira 47 (1): 8-13.
Harding, K. 1991. Molecular stability of the ribosomal RNA genes in Solanum tuberosum plants recovered from slow growth and cryopreservation. Euphytica 55: 141-146.
Harding, K. and Staines, H. 2001. Biometric analysis of phenotypic characters of potato shoot-tips recovered from tissue culture, dimethyl sulphoxide treatment and cryopreservation. CryoLetters 22: 255–262.
Harding, K. 2004. Genetic integrity of cryopreserved plant cells: a review. CryoLetters 25:3–22.
Harding, K., Day, J.G., Lorenz, M. Timmermann, H, Friedl, T. Bremner, D.H. and Benson, E.E. 2004. Introducing the concept and application of vitrification for the cryo-conservation of algae – A mini-review. Nova Hedwigia 79: 207–226.
Helliot, B., Panis, B., Poumay, Y., Swennen, R., Lepoivre, P. and Frison, E. 2002. Cryopreservation for the elimination of cucumber mosaic and banana streak viruses from banana (Musa spp.). Plant Cell Reports 20 (12): 1117-1122.
Hocher, V., Verdeil, J-L. and Malaurie, B. 2004. Cocos nucifera Coconut. In: R.E. Litz (ed.), Biotechnology of Fruit and Nut Crops, Chapter 4-1, Arecaceae, Biotechnology in Agriculture Series N.29, CABI Publishing Tropical Research and Education Center, Univ. of Florida, USA. pp. 90-112.
Hornung, R., Domas, R. and Lynch, P.T. 2001. Cryopreservation of plumular explants of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) to support programmes for mass clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis. CryoLetters 22: 211-220.
Janeiro, L.V., Ballester, A. and Vieitez, A.M. 1997. In vitro response of encapsulated somatic embryos of camellia. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 51: 119–125.
Jayasingha, J.A.S.S.C., Weerakoon, S.R. and Weerakoon, L.K. 2002. Studies on cryopreservation of mature zygotic embryos of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Proceedings of Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science 58: 66.
Jekkel, Z., Gyulai, G., Kiss, J., Kiss, E. and Heszky, L.E. 1998. Cryopreservation of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) somatic embryos using three different freezing methods. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 52: 193–197.
Karun, A. Sajini, K.K. and Parthasarathy, V.A. 2005. Cryopreservation of mature coconut zygotic embryos by desiccation method. Cord 21: 13‑19.
Karun, A. Sajini, K.K., Kumaran, P.M. and Samsudheen, K. 2006. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) pollen. Journal of Plantation Crops 34: 568‑571.
Karun, A. and Sajini, K. K. 2010. Cryopreservation of Coconut Zygotic Embryos and Pollen. Tech. Bulletin No. 57. Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, Kerala pp 18.
Karun, A., Sajini, K.K., Niral, V., Amarnath, C.H., Remya, P., Rajesh, M.K. and Engelmann, F. 2014. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) pollen cryopreservation. CryoLetters 35 (5): 407-417.
Kartha, K.K. and Engelmann, F. 1994. Cryopreservation and germplasm storage. In: I.K. Vasil, T.A. Thorpe (eds.), Plant cell and tissue culture, Kluwer, Dordrecht. pp. 195-230.
Kaviani, B. 2011. Conservation of plant genetic resources by cryopreservation. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5 (6): 778.
Kim, H.H., Lee, Y.G., Shin, D.J, Ko, H.C., Gwag, J.G., Cho, E.G. and Engelmann, F. 2009. Development of alternative plant vitrification solutions in droplet-vitrification procedures. CryoLetters 30 (5): 320-334.
Kong, L. and Aderkas, P.V. 2011. A novel method of cryopreservation without a cryoprotectant for immature somatic embryos of conifer. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 106: 115–125.
Langis, R., Schnabel, B., Earle, E.D. and Steponkus, P.L. 1989. Cryopreservation of Brassica campestris L. cell suspensions by vitrification. CryoLetters 10:421–428.
Lu, Z.W., Popova, E.V., Wu, C.H., Lee, E.J., Hahn, E.J. and Paek, K.Y. 2009. Cryopreservation of Ginkgo biloba cell culture: Effect of pretreatment with sucrose and ABA. CryoLetters 30 (3): 232-243.
Machado, C.D.A., Moura, C.R.F., Lemos, E.E.P.D., Ramos, S.R.R., Ribeiro, F.E. and Lédo, A.D.S. 2014. Pollen grain viability of coconut accessions at low temperatures. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy 36 (2): 227-232.
Malaurie, B. 2001. Medium- and long-term conservation and safe international exchange of germplasm from food and cash tropical crops. Acta Horticulturae 560: 69-77.
Malaurie, B. and Borges, M. 2001. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plumules by encapsulation/ dehydration. In International Workshop on Plant Biotechnology–Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Ciego de Avila 16 (20): 59.
Malaurie, B., Borges, M. and N'Nan, O. 2002. Research of an optimal cryopreservation process using encapsulation/ osmoprotection/ dehydration and encapsulation/ osmoprotection / vitrification techniques on caulinary meristems of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Burotrop Bulletin 20:16.
Malaurie, B., N'Nan, O., Borges, M., Bandupriya, H.D.D., Perera, P., Fernando, S.C., Hocher, V. and Verdeil, J-L. 2004. The use of biotechnology for conservation and dissemination of coconut genetic resources: an assessment of the IRD/Cirad implication. Proc. of International Conference of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka - Part I. (Eds: T.S.G. Peiris and C.S. Ranasinghe). The Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila 61150, Sri Lanka. pp. 233-253.
Malaurie, B., Bandupriya, H.D.D., Fernando, S.C. and Verdeil, J-L, 2006. Optimisation du procédé de cryoconservation de la plumule de cocotier. Les Actes du BRG 6: 449-468.
Mallon, R., Bunn, E., Turner, S.R. and Gonzalez, M.L. 2008.Cryopreservation of Centaurea ultreiae (Compositae) a critically endangered species from Galica (Spain). CryoLetters 29: 363-370.
Mandal, B.B. 2003. Cryopreservation techniques for Plant Germplasm Conservation. Conservation biotechnology of plant germplasm. In: B.B. Mandal, R. Chaudhury, F. Engelmann, B. Mal, K.L. Tao, B.S. Dhillon (eds.), Proceedings of regional training course on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation of plant germplasm, NBPGR, New Delhi, India. pp. 187-207.
Martín, C. and González-Benito, M.E. 2005. Survival and genetic stability of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev shoot apices after cryopreservation by vitrification and encapsulation- dehydration. Cryobiology 51: 281–289.
Mashud, N. 2010. Pengembangan metode kultur embryo kelapa kopyor yang lebih efisien (30%). Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kelapa dan Palma Lain, Manado.
Maskromo, I., Mashud, N. and Novarianto, H. 2007. Potensi pengembangan kelapa kopyor di Indonesia. Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan 13: 4-6.
Mazur, P. 1984. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 247(3):125-142.
Ming-Hua, Y. and Sen-Rong, H. 2010. A simple cryopreservation protocol of Dioscorea bulbifera L. embryogenic calli by encapsulation-vitrification. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 101:349–358.
Mortazavi, S.M.H., Arzani, K. and Moieni, A. 2010. Optimizing storage and In vitro germination of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) pollen. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 12: 181-189.
Moukadiri, O., Deming, J., O’Connor, J.E. and Carnejo, M.J. 1999. Phenotypic characterization of the progenies of rice plants derived from cryopreserved calli. Plant Cell Reports 18:625–632.
Nguyen, Q.T., Bandupriya, H.D.D., Lo´pez-Villalobos, A., Sisunandar, S., Foale, M. and Adkins, S.W. 2015. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review. Planta 242(5): 1059-1076.
Ninan, C.A. and Raveendranath, T.G. 1975. A study of karyotype of spicata and typica varieties of coconut and its bearing on the breeding behavior of spicata palms, New Botanist (India) 2: 81–87.
Nishizawa, S., Sakai, A., Amano, A.Y., Matsuzawa, T. 1993. Cryopreservation of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic suspension cells and subsequent plant regeneration by vitrification. Plant Science 91:67–73.
N’Nan, O. 1997. Recherche d’une méthode de déshydratation simple, favorable à la survie et à la régénération des embryons zygotiques matures cryoconservés de cocotier (Cocos nucifera L.). Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies, Université Abidjan-Cocody.
N'Nan, O., Borges, M., Verdeil, J-L., Hocher, V. and Malaurie, B. 2003. Are caulinary meristems suitable for cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) with encapsulation/dehydration technique? Histological studies, a way to find the good range of pretreatments. Burotrop Bulletin 20: 17.
N’Nan, O., Hocher, V., Verdeil, J-L., Konan, J-L.K, Ballo, K., Mondeil, F. and Malaurie, B. 2008. Cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration of plumules of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). CryoLetters 29 (4): 339-350.
N’Nan, O., Borges, M., Konan J-L.K., Hocher, V., Verdeil, J-L., Tregear, J., N’guetta, A.S.P., Engelmann, F. and Malaurie, B. 2012. A simple protocol for cryopreservation of zygotic embryos of ten accessions of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant 48:160–166.
Panis, B., Swennen, R. and Engelmann, F. 2001. Cryopreservation of plant germplasm. Acta Horticulturae 650: 79-86.
Panis, B., Piette, B. and Swennen, R. 2005. Droplet vitrification of apical meristems: a cryopreservation protocol applicable to all Musaceae. Plant Science 168:45–55.
Panis, B. and Lambardi, M. 2006. Status of cryopreservation technologies in plants (crops and forest trees). In The Role of Biotechnology for the Characterization and Conservation of Crop, Forest, Animal and Fishery Genetic Resources in Developing Countries. (Eds.) FAO. Turin, Italy. pp. 43–54.
Paunescu, A. 2009. Biotechnology for endangered plant conservation: a critical overview. Romanian Biotechnological Letters 14: 4095-4103.
Perera, P.I.P., Hocher, V., Verdeil, J., Doulbeau, S., Yakandawala, D.M.D. and Weerakoon, L.K. 2007. Unfertilized ovary: a novel explant for coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Reports 26: 1-8.
Perera, P.I.P., Wickremasinghe, I.P. and Fernando, W.M.U. 2008. Morphological, cytogenetic and genotypic differences between Spicata and ordinary tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), Journal of National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 36: 103-108.
Popova, E.V., Lee, E.J., Wu. C.H., Eun-Joo Hahn, E.J. and Paek, K.Y.A. 2009. Simple method for cryopreservation of Ginkgo biloba callus. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 97:337–343.
Rao, N.K. 2004. Plant genetic resources: advancing conservation and use through biotechnology. African Journal of biotechnology 3(2): 136-145.
Reed, B.M. and Uchendu, E. 2008. Controlled rate cooling. In: B.M. Reed (Ed.), Plant cryopreservation: a practical guide, Springer, Berlin. pp. 77–92
Roberts, E.H. 1973. Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Science and Technology 1: 499-514.
Ryynänen, L. and Aronen, T. 2005. Genome fidelity during short-and long-term tissue culture and differentially cryostored meristems of silver birch (Betula pendula). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 83(1): 21-32.
Sajini, K.K., Karun, A. and Kumaran, P.M.2006. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos after pre‑growth desiccation. Journal of Plantation Crops 34: 576‑581.
Sajini, K.K., Karun, A., Amarnath, C.H., and Engelmann, F. 2011. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos by vitrification. CryoLetters 32(4): 317-328.
Sakai, A, Kobayashi, S. and Oiyama, I.E. 1990. Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification. Plant Cell Reports 9: 30-33.
Sakai, A., Matsumoto, T., Hirai, D. and Nino, T. 2000. Newly developed encapsulation–dehydration protocol for plant cryopreservation. CryoLetters 21: 53-62.
Sakai, A. and Engelmann, F. 2007. Vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification: a review. CryoLetters 28(3): 151-172.
Sen-Rong, H. and Ming-Hua, Y. 2009. High-efficiency vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips of rare and endangered plant Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 99: 217-226.
Sen-Rong, H. and Ming-Hua, Y. 2012. A simple and efficient protocol for cryopreservation of embryogeniccalli of the medicinal plant Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge by vitrification. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 109: 287-296.
Sisunandar, Rival, A., Turquay. P., Samosir, Y., and Adkins, S.W. 2010a. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos does not induce morphological, cytological or molecular changes in recovered seedlings. Planta 232(2): 435-447.
Sisunandar, Peter, A., Sopade, P.A., Samosir, Y.M.S., Rival, A. and Adkins, S.W. 2010b. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Cryobiology 61: 289-296.
Sisunandar, Sopade, P.A., Samosir, Y., Rival, A. and Adkins, S. 2012.Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature. CryoLetters 33: 465- 475.
Sisunandar, 2013. Cryopreservation for Germplasm Conservation: Progress Report on Indonesian Elite Mutant Coconut “Kopyor”. In Proceeding International Conference on Global Resource Conservation and 10th Indonesian Society for Plant Taxonomy Congress Brawijaya University (No. 1).
Sisunandar, Novarianto, H., Mashud, N., Samosir, Y.M. and Adkins, S.W. 2014. Embryo maturity plays an important role for the successful cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera). In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant 50(6): 688-695.
Steponkus, P.L. 1985. Cryobiology of isolated protoplasts: Applications to plant cell cryopreservation. In: K.K. Kartha (Ed.), Cryopreservation of plant cells and organs, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 49-60.
Uragami, A., Sakai, A., Nagai, M. and Takahashi, T. 1989. Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis L. cryopreserved by vitrification. Plant Cell Reports 8: 418-421.
Vidhanaarachchi, V.R.M., Fernando, S.C., Perera, P.I.P. and Weerakoon, L.K. 2013. Application of un-fertilized ovary culture to identify elite mother palms of Cocos nucifera L. with regenerative potential. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 41 (1): 29-34.
Volk, G.M. 2010. Application of Functional Genomics and Proteomics to Plant Cryopreservation. Current Genomics. 11: 24-29.
Wang, Q., Mawassi, M., Sahar, N., Li, P., Violeta, C.T., Gafny, R., Sela, I., Tanne, E. and Perl, A. 2004. Cryopreservation of grapevine (Vitis spp.) embryogenic cell suspensions by encapsulation–vitrification. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 77: 267-275.
Wang, Q., Liu, Y., Xie, Y. and You, M. 2006. Cryotherapy of potato shoot tips for efficient elimination of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY). Potato Research 49(2): 119-129.
Wang, Q.C., and Valkonen, J.P.T. 2008. Elimination of two viruses which interact synergistically from sweet potato by shoot tip culture and cryotherapy. Journal of Virological Methods 154(1): 135-145.
Wang, Q.C., Panis, B., Engelmann, F., Lambardi, M., and Valkonen, J.P.T. (2009). Cryotherapy of shoot tips: a technique for pathogen eradication to produce healthy planting materials and prepare healthy plant genetic resources for cryopreservation. Annals of Applied Biology 154(3): 351-363.
Wesley-Smith, J., Walter, C., Berjak, P. and Pammenter, N.W. 2004. The influence of water content, cooling and warming rate upon survival of embryonic axes of Poncirus trifoliata L. CryoLetters 25: 129-138.
Withers, L.A., Engelmann, F. 1998. In vitro conservation of plant genetic resources. In: A. Altman (ed). Biotechnology in agriculture. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. pp. 57-88.
Zarghami, R., Pirseyedi, S.M., Hasrak, S.H. and Pakdaman, B.S. 2008. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum, African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 2798-2802.
How to Cite
Iroshini Welewanni, & Dharshani Bandupriya. (2017). Coconut Cryopreservation: Present Status and Future Prospects. CORD, 33(1), 21.