Quality of Coconut Oil using Fruit of Dwarf Coconut

  • Steivie Karouw
  • Chandra Indrawanto
  • Hengky Novarianto
Keywords: Coconut oil, Dwarf coconut, Lauric acid

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to study processing of coconut oil which focused on evaluation of the quality of oil by using fruit of several Dwarf coconut as raw materials. The varieties used were Salak Green Dwarf (SGD), Raja Brown Dwarf (RBD) and Bali Yellow Dwarf (BYD). The oil was extracted through the wet process by heating technique. The coconut oil volume was measured and evaluated for its fatty acids profile, free fatty acid contents, moisture content, color, smell and taste. The by-products such as coconut residue and blondo were measured, too. The results showed that processing of oil from 200 Dwarf nuts produced 7.1-8.4 L. The highest volume of oil (8.4 L) was resulted from SGD. The oil was generally having high medium chain fatty acid around 58.50-62.32% including lauric acid at 46.82-48.46%. The oil made from fruits of SGD contained the highest lauric acid around 48.46%, followed by RBD and BYD reaching 48.06%  and  46.82%, respectively. It had a good smell, and fatty acid and moisture content were in  accord with Indonesian National Standard. The coconut oil processed using the fruit of the SGD and RBD has a clear white color, while the BYD  having clear yellow in color, like corn oil.

Author Biographies

Steivie Karouw

Indonesian Palmae Research Institute (IPRI), Jl. Raya Mapanget, PO BOX 1004, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Chandra Indrawanto

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian – Balitbangtan, Jl. Ragunan 29, Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Selatan 12540, Indonesia

Hengky Novarianto

Coconut Breeders, Indonesian Palm Research Institute (IPRI), P.O. Box 1004, Manado 95001, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

References

Anonim. 2002. Nutritional Value of Coconut Kernel. The Cocommunity. XXXII (1) 15 Januari 2002. hal. 11-12.
Anonim. 2014. Kelapa Genjah Unggul. Poster Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma, Manado.
Bhatnagar., A.S., Prasant Kumar, P.K., Hemavathy, J. and Kopala, A.G.G. 2009. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and radical scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends with coconut oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 86: 991-999.
Chen, B.H. and M.H. Liu. 1998. Relationship between chlorophyll a and β-caroten in a lipid-containing model system during illumination. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society 74: 1115-1119.
Enig, M. E. 1999. “Coconut: In Support of Good Health in the 21st Century”, Paper presented on APPC’S XXXVI Session and 30th Anniversary in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.
Karouw, S., Suparmo, P. Hastuti. and T. Utami. 2013. Sintesis ester metil rantai medium dari minyak kelapa dengan cara metanolisis kimiawi. Agritech 33(2): 182-188.
Karouw, S., C. Indrawanto, and M.L. Kapu’Allo. 2014. Karakteristik virgin coconut oil dengan metode sentrifugasi. Buletin Palma 15(2): 128-133.
Karouw, S. and B. Santosa. 2014. Minyak kelapa: sumber asam lemak rantai medium. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Kelapa VIII. Jambi, 21-22 Mei 2014.
Lay, A. and B. Rindengan. 1989. Pengolahan minyak kelapa dengan pemanasan bertahap. Terbitan Khusus No. 15/VIII/1989. Balitka Manado. Hlm 89-90.
Lay, A., and S. Karouw. 2007. Pengolahan minyak kelapa dari kopra putih dengan metode kering. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Kelapa VI. Gorontalo 16-18 Mei 2006. Hal 249-256.
List, G.R., T. Wang, and V.K.S. Shukla. 2005. Storage, Handling and Transport of Oils and Fats dalam Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 6th ed., Vol. 5. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Luntungan, H.T., H. Tampake, E. Wardiana, E. Randriani, and H. Novarianto. 2014. Kelapa Genjah varietas Salak. Web Puslitbun. Diunggah 26 Agustus 2014.
Martin, D., G. Regiero and F.J. Senorans. 2010. Oxidative stability of structured lipids. Europe Food Research Technology 231:635-653.
Marina, A.M., Y.B. Che Man. and I. Amin. 2009a. Virgin coconut oil: emerging functional food oil. Trends in Food Science and Technology 20: 481-487.
Marina, A.M., Y.B. Che Man and S.A.H. Nazimah. 2009b. Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 86: 301-307.
Nevin, K.G. and Rajamohan, T. 2006. Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats. Food Chemistry 99: 260-266.
Novarianto, H., Miftahorrachman and J. Kumaunang. 1997. Peluang bisnis pengembangan benih unggul kelapa. Prosiding Temu Usaha Perkelapaan Nasional, Manado 6-8 Januari 1997. Hal 86-108.
Onsaard, E., M. Vittayanont, S. Srigam and D.J. McClements. 2005. Properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut skim milk proteins. J. Agricultural Food Chemistry 53(14): 5747-5753.
Onsaard, E., M. Vittayanont, S. Srigam and D.J. McClements. 2006. Comparison of properties of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by coconut cream proteins with those stabilized by whey protein isolates. Food Research International 39: 78-86.
Prajapati, V.D., G.K. Jani., N.G. Moradiya, N.P. Randeria, B.J. Nagar, N.N. Naikwadi and B.C. Variya. 2013. Galactomannan: A versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 60: 83-92.
Rindengan, B., and S. Karouw. 2002. Peluang pengolahan minyak kelapa murni. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Kelapa V. Tembilahan, Riau 21-21 Okotober 2002. Hlm 146-153.
Rindengan, B. S. Karouw, R.T.P. Hutapea, and A. Lay. 2004. Melirik nilai tambah minyak kelapa murni. Makalah disampaikan pada Temu Bisnis dalam rangka Simposium IV Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Perkebunan, Bogor, 28-30 September 2004.
Rindengan, B., S. Karouw, and P.M. Passang. 2004. Pengaruh konsentrasi starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lama fermentasi terhadap rendemen and mutu minyak kelapa. Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri 10(3): 106-111.
Rindengan, B., S. Karouw, and R.T.P. Hutapea. 2009. Minyak kelapa murni (virgin coconut oil): pengolahan, pemanfaatan and peluang pengembangannya. Monograf Pasca Panen Kelapa. Hal 9-19.
Rukmini, A. and S. Raharjo. 2010. Pattern of peroxide value changes in virgin coconut oil (VCO) due to photo-oxidation sensitized by chlorophyll. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 87: 1407-1412.
Trinidad, T.P., A.C. Mallilin, D.H. Valdez, A.S. Loyola, F.C.A. Mercado, J.C. Castillo, R.R. Encabo, D.B. Masa, A.S. Maglaya and M.T. Chua. 2006. Dietary fiber from coconut flour: A functional food. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 7: 309-317
Villarino, B., L.M. Dy and M.C.C. Lizada. 2007. Descriptive sensory evaluation of virgin coconut oil and refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. LWT Food Science and Technology 40: 193-199.
Published
2015-10-01
How to Cite
Steivie Karouw, Chandra Indrawanto, & Hengky Novarianto. (2015). Quality of Coconut Oil using Fruit of Dwarf Coconut. CORD, 31(2), 8. https://doi.org/10.37833/cord.v31i2.57
Section
Articles