Integrated Pest Management of Important Insect Pests of Coconut1
IPM or Integrated pest management is a strategy that integrates various methods of cultural, physical, mechanical, biological control and selection of pesticides as the last option. IPM is not only cost effective but simultaneously prioritized human and environmental safety. IPM is based on farmer’s local knowledge, acceptance and education. Several insects were reported as coconut pests in Asia and Pacific region. Among these pests, rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil, coconut hispine beetle, coconut black headed caterpillar and coconut scale currently causing severe damage to coconut palms in the region. Rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Management of this pest is a combination of sanitation in plantations and surrounding, biological control by using Metarhizium anisopliae, Oryctes virus and pheromone trapping. Red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) outbreaks usually occur after infestation of rhinoceros beetle. Keeping the rhinoceros under control results in keeping the red palm weevil under control too. Pheromone trapping is also developed for reduction of this pest. Coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomellidae), is an invasive pest occurs in Southeast Asia and Pacific region. Biological control of the pest is recommended by releasing two species of parasitoids, Asecodes hispinarus Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Tetrastichus brontispae Ferriere (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Coconut black headed caterpillar, Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) is one of the key pests of coconut in South Asia and invaded Thailand in 2008. Management of this pest in its native region consisted of: 1) removing and burning of the infested leaves; 2) biological control by releasing parasitoids such as Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck), Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), Brachymeria nephantidis Gahan; and 3) chemical control by trunk injection and applying systemic insecticides in the holes. Bacillus thruringiensis has been recommended for biological control of the black headed caterpillar in Thailand. Coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) has been reported as a serious in Philippines. Predators are significant biological control agents in limiting A. destructor populations. The most common natural enemies associated with the coconut scales are the coccinellid beetles Chilocorus spp., Azya trinitatis, Cryptognatha nodiceps, Rhyzobius lophanthae and Pentilia castanea. Local parasitoids, Comperiella, Aphytis and Encarsia also play important roles in keeping the pest under control. Application of insecticides could inducee the infestation of the scale. Biological controls is recommended for suppression of other coconut pests, such as slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) such as Parasa lepida Cramer; coconut leaf moth, Artona catoxantha Hampton (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae); and coconut leafminer, Promecotheca cumingii Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
Bedford G.O. 1980. Biology, ecology and control of palm rhinoceros beetles. Annual Review of Entomology, 25:309-339
CABI, 2013. Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc.
Catley A. 1969. The coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (L.). PANS, 15:18-30.
Cock, M.J.K. and Perera, P.A.C.R. 1987. Biological control of Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Oechophoridae). Biocontrol News and Information. 8: 283-309.
Cock M.J.W., Godfray H.C.J., and Holloway J.D. (Editors). 1987. Slug and nettle caterpillars. The biology, taxonomy and control of the Limacodidae of economic importance on palms in South-east Asia. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 270 pp.
Cohic F. 1961. Outbreaks and new records. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 9:109-111.
Damaraju, E. 1963. A check list of parasites, the hyperparasites, predators, and pathogens of the coconut leaf eating caterpillar Nephantis serinopa Meyrick recorded in Ceylon and in India and their distribution in these countries. Ceylon Coconut Quarterly, 13(3-4): 10 pp.
Davidson J.A., and Miller D.R. 1990. Ornamental plants. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 603-632.
Endrödi S. 1985. The Dynastinae of the World. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk, 800 pp.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – FAOSTAT - 2012.
Fenner T.L. 1984. Palm leaf beetle. Agnote 84/16. Northern Territory of Australia: Department of Primary Production.
Ganapathy T, Rajamanickam K, Raveendran TS, Lourduraj AC, Kennedy FJS, 1992. Status of coconut cultivation in Pollachi tract. II Prevalence of pests and diseases Indian Coconut Journal (Cochin), 23(3): 4-6.
Gordon R.D. 1978. West Indian Coccinellidae II (Coleoptera): some scale predators with keys to genera and species. Coleopterists Bulletin, 32(3): 205-218.
Hallett RH, Oehlschlager AC, Borden J.H. 1999. Pheromone trapping protocols for the Asian palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 45(3):231-237.
Kalshoven, L.G.E.; Laan, P.A. van der; Kalshoven, L.G.E. 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia. 701 pp.
Khoo K.C., Ooi P.A.C., Ho C.T. 1991. Crop pests and their management in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd. 242 pp.
Krantz, J., K. Schmutterer, and W. Koch. (Eds.). 1978. Disease, pests, and weeds in tropical crops. Chichester; New York: Wiley. 666 pp.
Lau C.S.K. 1991. Occurrence of Brontispa longissima Gestro in Hong Kong. Quarterly Newsletter - Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 34(3-4): 10.
Lever, R.J.A.W. 1969. Pests of the coconut palm. FAO Agricultural Studies. no. 77, Rome, 190 pp.
Long P.G. 1974. Report of investigations into the infestation of coconut palms in American Samoa by the coconut hispid beetle (Brontispa longissima) and recommendations on quarantine procedures for Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
Mariau D, Julia J.F. 1977. New research on the coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor (Sign.). Oleagineux, 32(5):217-224
Ooi, P.A.C. 1977. The coconut leaf moth (Artona cathoxantha Hamp.). Technical Leaflet No. 12. Published by and Obtainable from Publications Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Kualar Lampur, Malaysia. 15 pp.
Ooi, P.A.C. 1978. Integrated Control of coconut leaf moth (Artona cathoxantha Hamps.). In Proc. of the International Conference on cocoa and coconut held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on June 21-24, 1978: 649-657.
Ooi P.A.C., Yunus A, Goh K.G., Balasubramaniam A. 1975. Control of the coconut leaf moth, Artona catoxantha Hamps.: trunk injection technique. Malaysian Agricultural Journal, 50(2):159-168
Perera P.A.C. R., Hassell M.P., Godfrey H.C.J. 1988. Population dynamics of the coconut caterpillar, Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Xylolictidae), in Sri Lanka. Bull. Ent. Res. 78:479-492.
Perera P.A.C. R., Hassell M.P., Godfrey H.C.J. 1989. Population dynamics of the coconut caterpillar, Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae), in Sri Lanka. COCOS. 7, 42 - 57
Ramachandran, C. P., Ponnamma, K. N., Koya, K. M. A. & Kurian, C. 1979. The coconut leaf-eating caterpillar, Nephantis serinopa Meyrick, a review. - Philipp. J. Cocon. Stud. 4, 9-17.
Red Ring Research. 1983. Workshop on agricultural research policies and management in the Caribbean, September 26 - 30, 1983. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin American sub-regional office for the Caribbean. Unpublished.
Rethinam P., Singh S.P. 2007. Current status of the coconut beetle outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. RAP Publication [Developing an Asia-Pacific strategy for forest invasive species: the coconut beetle problem - bridging agriculture and forestry. Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network workshop, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 22-25 February 2005.], No.02:1-23.
Rosen D. 1990. World Crop Pests. 4B. Armored Scale Insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 688 pp.
Sadakathulla S. 1993. Technique of mass production of the predatory coccinellid, Chilocorus nigritus (Fabricius) on coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Indian Coconut Journal (Cochin), 23(9):12-13.
Sinnathamby S.V. 1980. Developments in the control of coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Sign. in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Coconut Quarterly, 28(3-4):81-88.
Sundaramurthy V.T. and Santhanakrishnan, K. 1978. Utility of unmated female of Perisierola nephantidis Muesbeck in the biological control of Nephantis serinopa Meyrick. Current Science. 47: 924-925.
Sandaramurthy V.T. and Santhanakrishnan, K. 1979. The effect of population density of parasite Perisierola nephantidis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) on mortality of coconut caterpillar, Nephantis serinopa (Lepidoptera: Cryptophasidae). Entomophaga, 24: 115-117.
Totthill J.D., Taylor THC, Paine RW, 1930. The Coconut Moth in Fiji, a history of its control by means of parasites. London, UK: The Imperial Bureau of Entomology, 269 pp.
van der Vecht J. 1950. The Coconut Leaf Moth (Artona catoxantha Hamps.). Part I. Life history and habits of Artona catoxantha, its parasites and hyperparasites. Contributions of the General Agricultural research Station, Bogor 110.
Venkatesan T. Jalali, S.K., Murthy, K.S., Rabindra, R.J. and Rao, N.S. 2006. Field evaluation of different doses of Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck) for the suppression of Opisina arenosella Walker on coconut. International Journal on Coconut R & D (CORD), 22 (special issue): 78-84.
Weijaroen R., A. Winotai, P. Choeykamhaeng. 2010. Study on the Culture Method of Tetrastichus brontispae Ferriere (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for Coconut Hispine Beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) Control.
Winotai A., P. Choeykamhaeng, R. Waicharoen, R. Morakote, C. Sinthusake. 2006. Studies to Develop Mass Rearing Procedures for the Parasitoid, Asecodes hispinarum, a Biological Control Agent of Coconut Hispine Beetle, Brontispa longissima, 12 pp. (in Thai with English abstract)
Winotai A., Sindhusake C. and Morakote R. 2007. Brief review on biological control of coconut hispine beetle Brontispa longissima in Thailand. In the APCC/FAO RAP/APPPC consultative meeting on the IPM of Brontispa longissima. ed Arancon RN Jr., FAO, Bangkok, Thailand, 228–258.
Wood B.J. 1968. Pest of Oil Palms in Malaysia and their Control. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Incorporated Society of Planters.
Wu, K. C., and Tao, C. C. C. 1976. Natural enemies of the transparent scale and control of the leaf bud beetle attacking coconut palm in Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 25: 141-155.
Young E.C. 1975. A study of rhinoceros beetle damage in coconut palms. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 170: 63 pp.
Zelazny B. 1979. Virulence of the baculovirus of Oryctes rhinoceros from ten locations in the Philippines and in Western Samoa. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 33(1):106-107.
Zhou CA, Zou JJ, Peng JC, 1993. Bionomics of coconut scale - a main pest insect on Actinidia and its control. Entomological Knowledge, 30(1):18-20.