Integrated Management of Major Coconut Pests Using Pheromone Lures

  • K. R. M. Bhanu
Keywords: aggregation pheromones, black headed caterpillar, red palm weevil, rhinoceros beetle, sex pheromones

Abstract

Red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae; Rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros Linn. (Coleoptera: Scarabidae) and Black headed caterpillar Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) are the three among major insect pests of coconut in India. Grubs of Red palm weevil (RPW) enter and complete their life cycle within the stem, killing the tree, adults of Rhinoceros beetle (RB) feed on the growing point of the tree and cause yield loss and the larvae of black headed caterpillar scrape and feed on the green part of the coconut leaflets leading to burnt symptoms of the fronds, death of young trees and yield loss. Aggregation pheromones of RPW and RB are used for monitoring and mass trapping of RPW and RB to manage the pest under economic threshold level. During 2006-07 large scale field trials for RPW and RB were carried out in four different states in India by PCI under a partially funded Coconut Development Board (CDB) project using indigenously synthesized pheromone lures. It was demonstrated that the pheromone lures predominantly attracted virgin and gravid females of RPW and RB. Female sex pheromone of black headed caterpillar Opisina arenosella was also identified and developed in India by PCI, under a project partially funded by CDB; dispensers, dosage and traps were standardized under field conditions and further trials were also conducted in India. It was also established that pheromone lures can be used as a monitoring and a surveillance tool for understanding the pest status before the release parasitoids and natural enemies.

Author Biography

K. R. M. Bhanu

Bio-Control Research Laboratories, A division of Pest Control (India) Pvt Ltd., 36/2, Sriramanahalli, Nr.  Rajankunte, Dodballapur Road, Bangalore-561 203, India

References

Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R., Al Shuaibi M. A., and Prem Kumar T. 2000. A strategy to manage red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. on date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. – Its successful implementation in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pestology, 24: 23-30.
Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R., Nair, C. P. R. and Nair, S. S. 2002. Present management technologies for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in palms and future thrusts. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 8: 69-82.
Cork, A and Hall, D. 1998. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 1: 35-49
Gries, G., Gries, R., Perez, A. L., Oehlschlager, A. C., Gonzales, L. M., Pierce, H. D., Jr:, Zebeyou, M. and Kouame, B. 1994. Aggregation pheromone of the African Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scarabidae). Z. Naturforsch 49: 363-366.
Hallet, R.H., Gries, R. H., Borden, J. H., Czyzewska, E., Ochlschlager, A. C., Pierce Jr. H. S., Angerili, N. P. D. and Rauf, A. 1993. Aggregation pheromone of two Asian palm weevils Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and R. culneratus. Naturwissenschfien 80: 328-331.
Jayanth K.P., Thomas Mathew and Bhanu K.R.M. 2010. Demonstration of the impact of area wide mass trapping of Red Palm weevil and Rhinoceros Beetle using aggregation pheromone lures in coconut plantations. In a book with title “In a Nutshell - Essays on Coconut”, Coconut Development Board, Government of India. p.137-177.
Kalidas, P. 2004. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in the management of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm in Andhra Pradesh. In Proceeding of National Seminar on Trends in Pheromone Research and Technology. National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagadh, p.72-80.
Murali Mohan, K., Ramkumar and Srinivasa, Y. B. 2007. On natural parasitization and biological control: Case of the coconut caterpillar.
Norman, K., Basri, M. W., Zaidi, M. I. and Maimon, A. 1999. Population studies of Oryctes rhinoceros in an oil palm replant using pheromone traps. In Proceeding of the 1999 PORIM International Palm Oil Congress – Emerging Technologies and Opportunities in the next millennium. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, p.441-455.
Ochlschlager, A. C., Chinchilla, C. M., Gonzales, I. M., Jiron, L. F., Mexzon, R. and Morgan, B. 1993. Development of pheromone-based trapping system for Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in oil palm. Environmental Entomology, 24: 1005-1012.
Rajalakshmi, L., Bharathiraja, A., Sakthivel, P. and Neelanarayanan, P. 2007. Utilization of aggregation pheromone for monitoring of rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) in coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineeesnsis) Groves. In Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Scenario in Zoology, Department of Zoology, National College, Tiruchirapalli, p.27-29.
Srinivasa Murthy et al., 1995 Proceeding of National Workshop on use of pheromones in IPM, DRR, Hyderabad
Vidhyasagar, P. S. P.V., Al-Saihati, A. A., A.-Mohanna, O. E., Subbei, A. I. and Abdul Mohsin, A. M. 2000. Management of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, a serious pest of date palm in Al-Qatif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Journal of Plantation Crops, 28: 35-43.
Published
2012-10-01
How to Cite
K. R. M. Bhanu. (2012). Integrated Management of Major Coconut Pests Using Pheromone Lures . CORD, 28(2), 10. https://doi.org/10.37833/cord.v28i2.98
Section
Articles